Period: 1500 to
Gold, God, and GloryEuropean powers discovered and colonized the Americas in hopes of becoming wealthy, spreading their religion, and expanding their empires. The Spanish aimed to conquer, the English aimed to colonize, and the French aimed to become wealthy off of fur trading.
JamestownThe first permanent English settlement that was established for commercial profit. Yet, the colony in Virginia turned into mostly survival where everybody had to work to eat and eventually plant tobacco (cash crop).
Development of the Colonies and Relationship with the Mother CountryBefore the French and Indian War, things like salutary neglect and mercantilism occurred. Salutary neglect allowed for representative government to be established within the colonies, while mercantilism caused tensions to grow due to the heavy restrictions on trade. After the French and Indian War, things went downhill on the road towards Revolution.
Southern ColoniesThe Southern Colonies were mostly founded for the fertile soil and agricultural opportunities it gave, such as rice and indigo (tobacco and cotton became more prominent later). Maryland was founded for Catholics to avoid persecution, and Georgia was founded to give debtors, impoverished people, and criminals to have a fresh start. In 1619, the Virginia House of Burgesses was established, which was the first representative assembly in the colonies and a model for representative government later.
Pilgrims and Mayflower CompactPilgrims emigrated from England to Plymouth, Massachusetts to escape religious persecution. Established first form of self-government with a social contract by signing the Mayflower Compact. Were also very nice to Native Americans.
New England ColoniesMost New England colonies were founded for religious freedom. Pilgrims and Puritans settled in Massachusetts. The Puritans settled in Massachusetts for religious freedom, and yet they had no tolerance for other's views and beliefs. Hence, Roger Williams founded Rhode Island with Anne Hutchinson and Thomas Hooker founded Connecticut. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were also established in 1639, serving as the first written constitution in the colonies.
Middle ColoniesThe Middle Colonies were very ethnically diverse and more economically driven. New York was founded for economic purposes since it was close to the Hudson River, becoming the center for shipping and trade. Thomas Hooker also founded Pennsylvania for the Quakers. !664 is the average year for the English taking control of the colonies and the founding of the colonies.
Causes of the American RevolutionProclamation of 1763
- King George issued the Proclamation of 1763 to keep peace and avoid costly conflict with the Native Americans
- The Proclamation prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains and granted Native Americans the rights to the land
- The colonists were angered and resented the Proclamation because they believed their king couldn't restrict their movement west.
Causes of the American RevolutionStamp Act
- The Stamp Act was a tax on almost all printed materials like newspapers, contacts, and playing cards
- Colonists protested the Stamp Act by boycotting British goods and burned stuffed figures of tax collectors
- The Sons of Liberty were a secret society that protested British policies and sometimes used violence to get their message across
- As a result of the protests/boycotts the Declaratory Act got approved after the Stamp Act was repealed
Causes of the American RevolutionQuartering Act
- The Quartering Act required colonists to quarter (house and feed) British soldiers
- Colonists didn't like the Quartering Act because it was costly to house and feed soldiers and the British soldiers had blank search warrants to seize property deemed unlawful.
- Inspired the 3rd and 4th amendments
Causes of the American RevolutionTownshend Acts
- The Townshend Acts were a set of laws passed by Parliament in 1767, where taxes were placed on items like imported glass, tea, and paper.
- The colonists and Daughters and Sons of Liberty responded to the Acts by boycotting the British goods and finding unique ways to replace the goods they were boycotting.
Causes of the American RevolutionBoston Massacre
- The Boston Massacre was when colonists were protesting against British soldiers who eventually felt overwhelmed and shot five of the colonists
- Crispus Attucks was an African-American who is considered the first casualty of the American Revolution
- John Adams defended the British soldiers to demonstrate the value of the right to trial by jury for all citizens.
Causes of the American RevolutionTea Act
- The Tea Act created a monopoly over tea, giving the British East India Company power over being the only one who could sell the colonists tea.
- Colonists were upset because of the tax (though lowered) and didn't want to be told what tea they could buy. Merchants refused to unload tea from British ships or sell tea. Others stopped drinking tea.
Causes of the American RevolutionBoston Tea Party
- The Boston Tea Party was a retaliation/protest against the Tea Act. When ships from the British East India Company came with tea, the Sons of Liberty and others dressed up as Native Americans, sneaked onto the ships, and threw 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. This all costed $1.7 million dollars.
Causes of the American RevolutionIntolerable Acts
- After the Boston Tea Party, King George was furious, and so he and Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to make the colonists pay for the tea and stop other attacks.
- The Intolerable Acts closed the Boston's port and strengthened the Quartering Act and gave Britain full control of the colony. The trading stopped, which affected the economy of the colonies, and the Revolutionary spirit was stirring across everybody
American RevolutionBattles of Lexington and Concord
- First battles of the Revolution
- Ralph Waldo Emerson described this event as "the shot heard around the world."
Declaration of IndependenceThe primary author was Thomas Jefferson, and it was written because the colonies wanted to everyone to know why they were breaking away. Also written to declare independence and list grievances against King George III. Lists unalienable rights (Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness).
American RevolutionBattle of Saratoga
- This battle was significant because it was a major battle that the colonists managed to emerge victorious, and the fact that they could defeat the British and gain France's alliance made this the turning point of the war.
American RevolutionWinter at Valley Forge
- Hardships the Continental Army faced include disease, starvation, and freezing conditions
- Despite this, Washington trained his men and transformed them into a professional army
American RevolutionBattle of Yorktown
- Significant because it's the last major battle of the Revolution
- French helped the Americans defeat the British at Yorktown
Articles of Confederation
American RevolutionTreaty of Paris
- Significant because it officially ended the American Revolution
- Americans gained recognition as an independent nation and a lot of land that the British had claimed (between Atlantic Ocean and Mississippi River except Florida and New Orleans)
Northwest Ordinance and Shays Rebellion
Early RepublicGeorge Washington
- Nation's first president; set standards for how to handle the presidency
- Faced debt from Revolutionary War, and Alexander Hamilton was appointed secretary of treasury to solve it (created National Bank)
- Created a Presidential Cabinet to help him make decisions
- Set up the court system with the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789
- Farewell Address had three warnings: No political parties, Avoid sectionalism, No permanent alliances
- Neutral; no involvement in foreign affairs
Early RepublicPolitical Parties are formed from disagreements over the power of the national government
Federalists- Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
Democratic-Republicans- Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Early RepublicJohn Adams
- XYZ Affair- France was capturing American cargo ships that were sailing towards Britain. When America retaliated, the French govt. sent three agents who demanded a lot of ransom money. John Adams became furious, and referring to them as XYZ, reported it to Congress, and France ceased
Early RepublicJohn Adams
- Alien and Sedition Acts- The president can imprison and/or deport any immigrants/foreign citizens if thought to be dangerous; Illegal to criticize/publish negativity/falsehoods about the government (except the vice president)
- Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions deemed the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional
Early RepublicThomas Jefferson
- Made the Louisiana Purchase and doubled the size of the United States for Westward Expansion, while openly contradicting his beliefs on interpreting the Constitution strictly
- Signed the Embargo Act to stop trade with foreign countries to decrease impressment from Great Britain and France (who were at war again); hurt the economy greatly
- Non-Intercourse Act allowed trade with all nations except France and Britain
- Jefferson was also the primary author of the DOI
Westward ExpansionLouisiana Purchase
- Made in 1803
- Bought for $15 million
- Doubled the size of the U.S./ encouraged Westward Expansion
Early RepublicMarbury v. Madison
Court case where Judge Marshall established the principle of judicial review
Early RepublicJames Madison
- President during the War of 1812, where America declared war on Britain because of impressment of sailors
- Ended by Treaty of Ghent
-Effects: Increased U.S. manufacturing, Worldwide respect for withstanding and defeating the British, improved professionalism in the army, increased patriotism
Industrialization and Reform (1800 to 1850s)
Early RepublicJames Monroe
- Era of Good Feelings where everybody was united and had a national purpose (from defeating the British)
- Two supreme court cases, McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden, where the power of the federal government was re-established
- Monroe Doctrine, where a warning was issued towards European powers that if they attempt to colonize or conquer Latin America, then America would defend it. Mainly issued to avoid further conflict with Europe
- North: People worked in factories and textile mills, had a large population, several immigrants, factories, schools, widespread network of railroads/canals, opposed slavery, and supported tariffs
- South: People worked at farms and plantations, had fertile soil and slavery, supported slavery, and opposed tariffs
- West: People worked in railroads, mines, ranches, had independent farms, businesses, cheap land, the Transcontinental Railroad, mostly opposed slavery, and supported tariffs
- Ceded to the U.S. by Spain by signing the Adams-Onis Treaty
- Spain got rid of it because Florida was bordered with American States, so it would have become overwhelmed with settlers anyway, and so Spain ceded it to avoid conflict
- Admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state
- Outlawed slavery above the 36°30' line.
- Agreement and settled a dispute between slave and free states (kept the balance/ratio)
Industrualization and Reform (1800-1850s)
Corrupt BargainJohn Quincy Adams
- In the election of 1824, electoral candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay made a deal for Clay to tip the scales in Senate in Adams' favor against Andrew Jackson, and Adams promised he would make Clay the Secretary of State. This was known as the Corrupt Bargain, and it infuriated Jackson
Age of JacksonAndrew Jackson
- Won because he's known as the "Common Man"/Voter participation increased due to elimination of property requirements
- Practiced spoils system where he gave his supporters government jobs
- Shut down the bank and plunged the nation into economic depression
- Indian Removal Act where he could force Native Americans to relocate
- Tariffs were passed to encourage growth of US manufacturing
- Since imported goods were now more expensive, American goods grew in demand, making Northern industries flourish
- Southern states disliked tariffs because it increased the price of imported goods and discouraged foreign trade (hurt cotton sales)
- States rights= States had the right to not follow a federal law if deemed inappropriate
- South Carolina nullified the law and threatened to secede from the Union
Age of Jackson
Westward ExpansionAnnexation of Texas
- After Texas became a Republic, then president James K. Polk annexed it into the U.S.
- Mexico became very mad, and there was also a border dispute
- Triggered the U.S.-Mexican War, which ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and caused Mexico to give up claims to Texas
- Purpose was to ban slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in the US-Mexican War
- Rejected by Southerners thrice because their economy depended heavily on slavery
Westward ExpansionOregon Country
- Split territory with Great Britain at 46° North, and completes Manifest Destiny (stretching from coast to coast)
Westward ExpansionMexican Cession
- Ceded by Mexico by the end of the U.S.-Mexican War (Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo) for $15 million dollars
Woman SuffrageIn the Seneca Falls Convention, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott brought awareness woman's civil rights. Stanton wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which was modeled after the DOI and stated all men and WOMEN were equal.
SectionalismCompromise of 1850
- Cause of tension: Whether slavery would be allowed in the western lands acquired from Mexican Cession
- California enters nation as a free state; slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.
- Southwest can vote on slavery; Existing slaves in D.C. could be kept; Stronger Fugitive Slave Law
SectionalismFugitive Slave Law
- Required all runaway slaves, upon capture, be returned to their southern owners. Citizens of free states must help capture slaves
- Many African Americans fled to Canada
- Free blacks were captured and sent to plantations
- Abolitionists enforced their cause more
- Underground Railroad flourished
- People undecided about slavery now took a strong stance against it
Westward ExpansionGadsden Purchase
- Bought from Mexico for $10 million to finish the Transcontinental Railroads and to also build other railroads
- The settlers of the territories could vote and decide if slavery would allowed. This principle is called popular sovereignty.
- People with opposing beliefs rushed to settle Kansas in hopes of determining the results of the first vote on slavery. Conflict ensued and became violent, and this period became known as Bleeding Kansas
- Republican Party was founded
- Repealed Missouri Compromise
SectionalismDred Scott v. Sandford
- Dred Scott, a slave, attempts to sue because he had lived in free states before
- Judge Taney's ruling was that slaves were property, African Americans were not citizens, African Americans could not sue, and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and could not ban slavery in western territories
- Discussion on the issue of slavery
- Abraham Lincoln believed slavery should be allowed in the South, however, it should not be expanded. Wanted to keep the country united
- Stephen Douglas believed that the people should decide. Firm on state's rights
SectionalismRaid on Harper's Ferry
- John Brown, an abolitionist, led the raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He attacked the federal arsenal because he wanted to obtain weapons and distribute them among slaves so they could rebel
- Notherners greatly supported his cause because they were against slavery, and he was killed for his beliefs (martyr), while Southerners felt slaves would begin to rebel due to influence
- John Brown had asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass to help but they both refused
SectionalismElection of 1860
- Four candidates: Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat), John Breckinridge (Southern Democrat), and John Bell (Constitutional Union)
- Southern States excluded Lincoln's name from the ballot to reduce support for him.
Civil WarBattle of Fort Sumter
- Fought in South Carolina
- Confederate soldiers bombed Fort Sumter (Union fort) for over 30 hours with multiple cannons until the Union soldiers surrendered and returned to the North
Civil WarFirst Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
- Condeferate victory led by General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
- The Confederate forces felt confident and unbeatable because they had early victories over the Union
Civil WarBattle of Antietam
- Considered the bloodiest one-day battle in U.S. history
- Thousands of soldiers fought and died for 12 hours until the Union army outnumbered/overwhelmed the Confederates. Too many soldiers laid dead afterwards
- The result of General Lee attempting to make Maryland join the Confederacy
ReconstructionHomestead and Morrill Act
- Homestead Act: The purpose of the Act was to encourage Westward Expansion and it caused many people to travel West with the lure of free land in exchange for working on it for 5 years to get ownership. Impact: Farms tripled and offered African Americans a better life
- Morrill Act: The purpose of the Act was to allow states to establish colleges, emphasized agriculture and mechanical arts. Impact: Allowed Americans to pursue a higher education
Civil WarEmancipation Proclamation
- Purpose was to free all slaves in slave-holding states (except border states) and make sure the government recognizes their freedom and recruit African-Americans for the Union Army.
- The benefit on the Union would be that the army would increase in numbers and there's more of a chance to defeat the Confederate Army
Civil WarSiege of Vicksburg
- Fought in Mississippi
- The Mississippi RIver was important for the Union because it was the only way the Union could transport their soldiers and supplies along the Mississippi River
- Significance was that it was a turning point by dividing the Confederacy in half and cutting off their supplies (Union victory)
Civil WarBattle of Gettysburg
- Confederate General: Lee, commanded 75,000 troops
- Union General: George C. Meade, commanded 90,000 Yankees (troops)
- Significance is that it was a turning point because the Confederate Army lost one-third of their army and will never be able to attack in the North again
- Fought in Pennsylvania
Civil WarSurrender at Appomattox
- Lee surrendered to Grant in the home of WIlmer McLean (Appomattox Court House). He surrendered formally because his army simply couldn't get any supplies or support
- Main priority following the war was to admit the Confederate States back into the Union and help them recover from the war
- 620,000 soldiers died in the Civil War
Lincoln's AssassinationJohn Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14th, 1865. Andrew Johnson became president
- Purpose was to help African Americans adjust to life after slavery
- They provided food, housing, clothing, medical care, legal assistance, job training, and schools
Abolished slavery in the nation; made slavery illegal unless used as a form of punishment
ReconstructionCivil Rights Act of 1866
- Purpose was to grant citizenship to those born in the U.S. (equal rights) (Native Americans not included)
- Congress passed a law to protect racial minorities for the first time
- Andrew Johnson opposed this act because he was a white supremacist who didn't believe in equal rights for African Americans, and he tried to veto the bill
- Lincoln didn't want to punish the South and offer amnesty instead by allowing them, except Confederate Leaders, to swear an oath of allegiance to the Union; give assistance to African Americans
- Johnson believed African Americans didn't deserve equal rights, and he also would have admitted the Confederate States back by them swearing oaths of allegiance
Made all African Americans citizens; To grant citizenship to all African Americans and those born in the U.S.
Granted all African Americans the right to vote; To give voting rights to all African Americans (and other races)
This allowed for Hiram Rhodes Revels, the first African American senator, to be elected
ReconstructionCompromise of 1877
- The Democrats would let Rutherford B. Hayes be elected as president if the Republicans took the army out of the South
- This was agreed to, and thus Reconstruction ended
- AA's were devastated and felt cheated