Timeline 4: The Romantic Era (1810s-1890)

  • Period: to

    J. von Goethe

    German writer and statesman, his writings were very influential on our romantic composers
  • Period: to

    L. Cherubini

    Italian composer, wrote French opera: Lodoiska (1791), on founding faculty of Paris Conservatory and became its director
  • Period: to


    A French Military Dictator who conquered much of Europe
  • Period: to


    transitional from classical to romantic style. He composed 9 symphonies, 1 bad opera, piano music, Lieder, and chamber music. He was a Virtuoso pianist. He was hard of hearing.
  • Period: to

    C. von Weber

    Composed the first German Romantic opera "Der Freischutz"
  • Period: to

    G. Meyerbeer

    Jewish German composer who studied in Italy and composed French opera in Pairs
  • Period: to

    G. Rossini

    Most important opera composer in early 19th century and the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
    continued Mozart's operatic style
  • Period: to

    F. Schubert

    Composed in all genres, over 600 Lieder
  • Period: to

    H. Berlioz

    One of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres, he wrote a treatise on orchestration, one of the first conductors to stand in front of the orchestra and conduct
  • Fidelio

    Beethoven's only opera
  • Period: to

    Fanny Mendelssohn

    Older sister of Felix, they died the same year. She was a child prodigy. Used F. Mendelssohn because if she published under her name it could bring shame to the family
  • Period: to

    Felix Mendelssohn

    Brother of Fanny. He revived J.S. Bach's music
  • Period: to

    Romantic style

    More minor keys, Larger orchestras and choirs, longer pieces, more percussion and brass, Phrasing less symmetrical and more expansive, ascending 6ths favored in melodies.
    New genres: Character pieces and Tone poems
  • Period: to

    R. Schumann

    Important as an editor and promoter of music
  • Period: to

    F. Chopin

    Pianist and Composer, found great success in the salons
  • Period: to

    War of 1812

  • Period: to

    R. Wagner

    He changed opera, harmony, and music in general.
    Music Dramas
    Leitmotiv: a short motif assigned to a person, place, or thing
  • Period: to

    G. Verdi

    The most important Italian composer in the mid to late 19th century. He was primarily an opera composer. Very famous
  • The Ophicleide

    a keyed brass instrument with a range similar to a trombone, patented by Jean Hilaire Aste. Has a family of different sizes.
  • The Carlsbad Decrees of 1819

    the decrees placed limits on freedom of expression by individuals
  • Period: to

    C. Schumann (Wieck)

    Virtuoso pianist, composer, wife of Robert Schumann
  • Period: to

    J. Offenbach

    known for his operettas like La belle Helene, and Orphee aux enfers
  • Royal Academy of Music

    London opened its music school
  • Period: to

    B. Smetana

    Bohemian, he's best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called Ma Vlast. He is considered the founder of Czech music, pianist and child prodigy. in 1874 was completely deaf
  • Period: to

    S. Foster

    first American to make a living as a professional songwriter, but died a broke alcoholic.
  • Period: to

    J. Brahms

    young composer, German romantic composer, continued classical traditions. He was one of the first editors of J. S. Bach's music, he favored absolute music
  • Period: to

    G. Bizet

    He blended styles into opera comique with Carmen (1875)
  • Period: to

    P. Tchaikosky's

    Trained musically in the west, composed 8 operas, 7 symphonies, piano concertos, and many more
    Swan Lake (1877)
    The Sleeping Beauty (1890)
    The Nutcracker (1892)
  • Period: to

    A. Dvorak

    from Bohemia, Czechoslovakian nationalist composer. Wrote many symphonies.
  • The New York Philharmonic

    founded in 1842
  • Period: to

    G. Puccini

    The most important Italian composer after Verdi. Wrote some of the last great operas written in Italian tradition of Bel Canto
  • Period: to

    G. Mahler

    Bridged the Austro-German romantic traditions of composing with the new modern styles of composing
    Some of his music is suspected to have been destroyed in the bombing of Dresden
  • Period: to

    American Civil War

  • Phonograph

    invention of the Phonograph
  • M. Baryshnikov

    One of the most famous Russian ballet dancers of recent times