Post-1900s music

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    Gabriel Faure

    French composer
    Undisguised avant-garde
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    John Phillip Sousa

    Promoted American wind-band tradition while in Europe
    Wrote "The Washington Post," "Semper Fidelis," "Stars and Stripes Forever," "El Captan," and at least 9 operettas
    Conducted "The President's Own" Marine band
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    Erik Satie

    French composer
    Undisguised avant-garde
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    Arnold Schoenburg

    Austrian composer
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    Charles Ives

    American Aleatoric composer
    Used tone clusters
    His father shaped his musical style
    -made him harmonize pieces of music with a different key
    -played on instruments that used quarter tones
    -played 2 meters at once
    Most of his works were not known until the 70s
    His 3rd symphony won a Pulitzer Prize but 4th symphony was not performed until after his death
    Style traits
    -Polyrhythms and polymeters
    -limited atonality
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    Arthur Honegger

    Member of Les Six
    Only member that was born in Sweden
    Composed most of his works on commission
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    Igor Stravinsky

    Russian composer
    Wrote the music for "Rite of Spring"
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    Edgard Varese

    English composer who had a vision of musical timbres and modern orchestration techniques, which occasionally excluded the use of strings
    Non-tonal composer
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    Florence Price

    First Black female composer to have a symphony performed by an American orchestra: "Symphony No.1 in Em
    Played her first piano recital at age 4
    Graduated high school at 14 and was valedictorian
    Attended New England Conservatory of Music
    Began composing in 1910 and taught piano lessons
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    Nadia Boulanger

    French Composer but preferred to help composers (taught them)
    Her little sister, Lili, was also a composer, and after Lili died, Nadia was felt the need to become a teacher
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    Luigi Russolo

    Italian futurist painter, composer, and builder of experimental instruments
    "Art of Noises"
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    Louis Durey

    Member of Les Six
    Wrote songs for the French resistance during World War II
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    Sergei Prokofiev

    Russian composer
    Wrote orchestral pieces and piano for film
    7 symphonies, suites, incidental music, 5 piano concertos, 1 cello concerto, operas, ballets, choral music, film scores among many other things
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    Germaine Tailleferre

    member of Les Six
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    Darius Milhaud

    Member of Les Six
    Rejected impressionism
    American jazz had some influence on his work
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    Robert Nathaniel Deft

    Canadian pianist that graduated from Oberlin and the Eastman School of Music
    Studied with Natalie Boulanger
    "Cave of the Winds March and Two Step"
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    William Grant Still

    1st black American composer to
    -have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble
    -conduct a major symphony orchestra
    Studied music at the New England Conservatory and Oberlin Conservatory
    Arranged music for jazz bands and dance orchestras
    Composed and arranged music for films for the stage and concert hall
    Created a style that blended African American idioms into more European genres
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    Henry Cowell

    American Aleatoric composer
    Used tone clusters
    John Cage's teacher
    American innovator who was drawn to non-Western music
    Supported Charles Ives
    Invented chance music
    Invented new techniques for playing the piano
    Coined the term "tone cluster"
    Groups of adjacent notes that were sounded with fist, palm, or forearm (highly dissonant)
    Wrote "Tides of Manaunaun" in 1912
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    Francis Poulenc

    Member of Les Six
    Self taught but had musical tutors
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    Georges Auric

    Member of Les Six
    Ran SACEM
    Music journalist
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    Undisguised avant-garde

    Composers Erik Satie (1866-1925) and Gabriel Faure (1845-1924) were not very fond of the Wagnerian style, and they attempted to step out of the Romantic aestheticism. Artist Marcel Duchamp's (1887-1968) presentation of a sculptural urinal, "Fountain" was a huge expression against Romanticism.
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    Aaron Copeland

    American composer
    2 operas, 6 ballets, 8 film scores, 25 piano works, 3 symphonies, concertos, overtures, and fanfares, 12 choral works, and 20 songs
    Style was mostly tonal but wrote atonal music that wasn't popular
    Style traits were vigorous, mixed meters (rhythmic), comprised of as few notes as possible, solos (often exposed), transparent, and filled with folk songs and idioms
  • Unanswered Question

    Unanswered Question
    Orchestral work (no genre)
    Not published until 1940
    Both parts are performed separately
    Written by Charles Ives
    Composed for strings, solo trumpet, and wind quartet
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    Elliott Carter

    American composer or 50 years and influential teacher
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    Return to the 19th century
    Used similar forms, textures, and topics from the past to combine them with the then modern harmonies, tonality, and timbres
    -some of the new musical elements were polyrhythms and polytonalities, which resulted in a lot of complex music
    -melodies were not main focus of compositions
    -new conceptions of harmonies included polychords, polytonalities, and atonalities
    A popular neo-classist was Igor Stravinsky
    -used complex rhythms
    -used sharp dissonance
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    Western visual art movement, which borrowed non-Western subjects (often naive and folklike); a sensible attitude that informed diverse aspects of modern art
    Popular composers
    -Paul Ganguin (1848-1903)
    -Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971): "Rite of Spring" uses vigorous, repetitive ostinatos that demonstrated musical aspects of this movement
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    Pierre Schaeffer

    French composer
    Developed musique concrete using a tape recorder
  • Pierrot lunaire

    Pierrot lunaire
    Song cycle
    -21 (bizarre) poems from Belgian symbolist poet, Albert Giraud's "Pierrot lunaire," which was divided into 3 sets of 7 poems
    -Written for
    Solo voice
    Clarinet/bass clarinet
    -It is about a sad, drunk clown who becomes ridden with guilt and then climbs from the depths of depression to a more playful mood while still having thoughts of guilt, but eventually he becomes sober.
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    John Cage

    American Indeterminate music composer
    Lectured on the topic and referred to indeterminacy in music as a piece's ability to be performed in different ways
  • Rite of Spring

    Rite of Spring
    -Music by Igor Stravinsky
    -Cherographed by Vaslar Nijinsky
    -Produced by Sergey Diaghilev
    -Costumes inspired by Pablo Picasso
    -showed scenes of pagan Russian rituals
    -music was rhythmically forceful that orchestra seemed to use a hammer to play it
    -music and story were radical
    -received an "X" rating but now would be considered PG-13
    -caused a riot
    -lots of polyrhythms and polychords
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    World War I

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    Movement of anti-art thinking in which various types of artists reacted against war and the bourgeois in Europe
    It attracted various artists including painters, poets, the literary, etc. Many supporters began to question society's standards of art. The artists associated with the movement created the way into modernist thinking, which led to more questioning of traditional artistic expectations.
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    Les Six

    A group of French composers who banded together; Georges Auric, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, and Germaine Tailleferre
    Concerts and Publicity
    -Le Coq et l'Arlequin (1918)
    -Le Boeuf surle toit
    -L'Album des Six (an album they did in 1920)
    -Les maries de la tour Eiffel (1921)
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    Milton Babbitt

    Maximized Expressionism composer from the US
    His pieces pushed the furthest into and through emotional extremity
    Posses an exaggerated sense of emotional expression leaning towards the extremism of Maximized Expressionism
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    Style of music that focused on elements other than pitch
    Percussion benefitted from this style
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    Iannis Xenakis

    Indeterminate composer
    Focused on an indeterminate process of composition
    Composed using probability theories
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    Emerged a cultural capital of African American arts, including literature, painting, and music
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    Gyorgy Ligeti

    Hungarian-Austrian composer
    Exploited textural music and sound blocks in his works
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    Morton Feldman

    American Indeterminate composer
    Used a type of indeterminate music that replaced traditional musical notation with symbols or visual signs suggesting performance elements rather than notating them
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    Earle Brown

    American Indeterminate composer
    Used a type of indeterminate music that replaced traditional musical notation with symbols or visual signs suggesting performance elements rather than notating them
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    Karlbeinz Stockhausen

    Indeterminate composer
    Focused on an indeterminate process of composition
  • George Crumb

    George Crumb
    Born in 1929 (still alive)
    Maximized Expressionism composer from the US
    His pieces pushed the furthest into and through emotional extremity
    Posses an exaggerated sense of emotional expression leaning towards the extremism of Maximized Expressionism
    Politicized works by him in the 70s swell stylistically from Maximalized emotional expression
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    Krzysztof Penderecki

    Polish composer
    Exploited textural music and sound blocks in his works
  • Peter and the Wolf

    Peter and the Wolf
    Music by Sergei Prokofiev
    Used a narrator
    Had 5 musical traits: Classicism (neo-classicism), Individual harmonic language, rhythmic drive, lyrical expression, comedic elements
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    World War II

  • Brian Ferneyhough

    Brian Ferneyhough
    British new complexity composer
    Wrote "Etudes Trancendantales" from 1982-85
  • Appalachian Spring

    Appalachian Spring
    Ballet for Martha Graham who also danced the lead
    Music by Aaron Copeland
    Ballet portrays a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly-built farmhouse in the Pennsylvania hills in the early part of the 1800s. There are an engaged couple, a preacher, neighbors, and more
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    Musique concrete

    Had far reaching compositional effects on modern music
    Took recorded natural sounds (dripping water, singing of birds, passing of a train, voices, etc.) and manipulated them by tape-slicing it, mixing it, and super imposing the sounds one on top of another
  • Black Pierrot

    Black Pierrot
    Art song from a song cycle
    Echoes Schoenburg's "Pierrot Lunaire"
    Text by Langston Hughes
    Chromatic harmony
    Blues composed
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    Also known as chance music
    Concept of composition which the composer left one or more musical elements in performance up to chance
    Performances of certain pieces were never the same twice
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    Based on elements of chance, but more specifically 3 types of chance elements
    First type of indeterminate music presented itself as aleatoric music
    Element of chance can still be present in performance, but the greatest elements were still being composed
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    Functioned alongside non-tonal music with its sound masses, which could function with 2 or more melodic line although not with individual melodies, harmonies, nor rhythms
    Used sound blocks
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    Maximized Expressionism

    Surprise to composers who had been seeking the ultimate fulfillment of complete complexity
    Followed in the footsteps of Taruskin's notions of Maximalism
    Reflection of the highest level of maximalization in Expressionism
  • Synthesizer

    Became invented by Harry Olsen and Herbert Belar
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    Electronische Musik

    Developed in Cologne, Germany
    For modern music today, the fusion of technology and acoustic music has created an entirely different aesthetic from all proceeding music so far
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    Style of repetitive music, which was based on the notion that small units of musical material such as pitches, chords, or rhythms, could be repeated with only slight variation over long periods of time
  • Neo-romanticism

    Began in the 70s
    Music that appeals to audiences who are hoping for music that they can understand and embrace
    Uses a lot of dissonances (more than before)
    Elements of melody, harmony, and texture from the romantic era
  • Neo-tonality

    Began in the 70s
    Non-functional tonality
    Uses chromaticism, complex chords, and embraces major seconds
    Also embraces consonance and dissonance
    Uses dissonant intervals of 7ths and 2nds
  • Postmodernism

    Began in the 70s
    Aesthetic attitude
    Focused on uniting many past elements of music (from early 20th century) into a new eclectic style
    Was the most inclusive style of music
    Has crossed over to popular music of today
    Used in video games and some media
  • Totalism

    Began in the 80s
    Music that developed particularly among composers working in NYC as a response to Minimalism
    Features complexity as its primary aim
  • New complexity

    began in the 80s
    ties closely with concepts from totalism
    Abstract, dissonant, microtonal
    reaction against minimalism
    focuses on the multiplex compositional methods of its composers
  • Globalization

    began in the 90s
    direct result of technologies, which allowed immediate exchange of ideas and access to music and cultures from anywhere
  • Maximized Aesthetics for Our Maxed-Out Maximalism

    the current American society values the extremes