Img 1833

Music History Timeline

  • 500

    Medieval Era

    Medieval Era
    (.c.500-1450CE) The Medieval Era meaning between the ages had adopted Greek concept of education which is apart of the seven liberals. Quadrivium which includes, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy, and Music. Trivium which includes, Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic. This was 1150 years between the ancient world of Greece and Rome, and the advent of the Renaissance in the 15th century.
  • 1030

    Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus

    Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus
    (c.990-1050) Guido developed a sight-singing system of 6 notes, developed a treatise where he describes this process. He created the 4 line staff, relative pitch, accidentals, round b which is flat and square b which became b natural. The Guidonian Hand he explained that notes outside of "the hand" were called music ficta (false of feigned music). This included any accidentals employed to avoid the tritone ("the devil in music") which was prohibited in the sacred music.
  • 1098

    Hildegard of Bingen

    Hildegard of Bingen
    She was born into nobility, but promised to the church at a young age. She gained reputation for divine prophecies, sought after for guidance by emperors, kings, bishops, and popes. She did poetry, prose, and writings on science and healing. She eventually set poetry to original chant melodies; did not draw on preexisting Gregorian melodies. Claimed all work was divinely inspires through visions.
  • 1179

    Hildegard's Death

    Hildegard's Death
  • 1323

    Ars Nova - New Art (1315-1375)

    Ars Nova - New Art (1315-1375)
    This is a style of music emerged in France. The 13th century polifany of Notre Dame known as Ars Antiqua or Old Art. The older generation did not like the new Abagar progressive sound of the Nova. The younger generation advocated for this music. One of the most important things about the Ars Nova Treatise was the beginning of a piece. They divided it in both duple and triple a full circle, perfect or triple and a dot, perfect or triple. Half circle, imperfect or duple, no dot, imperfect or duple
  • 1450

    Renaissance Period

    Renaissance Period
    (1450-1600) Renaissance is a French word for rebirth it was not called the Renaissance until the 19th century when it was so named in the history of France in 1855. The Renaissance implies a rebirth of learning, arts, and culture. There was a growth in Humanism because of the ideas of ancient Greece. Being of humans its now the birth of Literature, Arts, and Sciences. Printing press resulted in good birth bible. The Hundred Years War ended and resulted in a very stable economy.
  • 1485

    Josquin's Ave Maria

    Josquin's Ave Maria
    This piece was often called the "Mona Lisa" of Renaissance Music. It was also one of his earliest and most popular motets. With it being a Renaissance Motet it had some polyphonic settings of a sacred Latin text other than the Mass Ordinary. The text refers to the five feasts of the virgin, or the stations in the life of Mary from conception though assumption.
  • 1517

    Martin Luther Chorale

    Martin Luther Chorale
    (1483-1546) Luther one of the most pivotal figures in the history of the Western world. He considered music to be a gift from God, second only to theology. He believed that suppressing human creativity was a violation of the image of God. He decided that the congregation should participate in the worship including singing monophonic chorales in German. His most famous chorale, A Mighty Fortress in Our God, became an anthem for the reformation.
  • 1538

    Arcadelt Madrigal

    Arcadelt Madrigal
    The text alludes to a sexual climax which was referred to in the 16th century as "the little death." "Dying fills me fully with complete joy and desire." This was most likely performed by four men sitting around a table. The last line of the ten lined poem takes up almost a quarter of the entire madrigal. Arcadelt gives singers plenty of time to dwell on the punch line. Ac string of imitative entrances portrays the words "thousands deaths a day."
  • 1555

    Palestrina Pope Marcellus Mass

    Palestrina Pope Marcellus Mass
    (1535-1594) This work exemplifies Palestrina's style, which became a model for subsequent generations and is still the ideal in present-day textbooks on counterpoint. The rules for Palestrina counterpoint include; mostly stepwise melodic motion dissonances introduced in suspensions and resolved on strong beats, dissonances between beats are allowed if the moving voice is doing so in a stepwise fashion or as a suspension, and Anglican Church blended elements of Catholic and Protestant theology.
  • Victoria Missa O Magnum Mysterium

    Victoria Missa O Magnum Mysterium
    Tomas Luis de Victoria was the most famous Spanish composer in the 16th century. He worked in Rome from 1565 to 1587. He was the first Spanish composer to master Palestrina's style, yet his music departs from that style in many ways. ,most of his masses are parody or imitation masses based on his motets. A parody mass is a type of Cantus firmus mass that uses all voices of a preexisting polyphonic work.
  • Gabrieli Sonata Pian'e Forte

    Gabrieli Sonata Pian'e Forte
    He was the first to specify what instruments played what part. This is also the first piece of music in history to designate dynamics because in this era of music there was just soft and loud.
  • Baroque Period

    Baroque Period
    The term Baroque was used for art and architecture of the 17th century. One way the Catholic Church and the counter reformation helped bring people back into the Catholic Church was by building these gigantic baroque cathedrals which is suppose to overwhelm you and make you feel small. The term wasn't applied to music until 1940 and musical historians applied the date to 1600 to 1750. It started in 1600 because of the mass experimentation in music and 1750 because that was the year Bach died.
  • Monteverdi's l' Orfeo

    Monteverdi's l' Orfeo
    This was the first Opera to enter the standard repertory. It was commissioned by the Duke of Nantua for his daughter's wedding. There was only men who attended the performance. The Second Prattica can be seen in Orfeo's lament from Act 2. It begins with expressions of grief, portrayed by built-up phrases and dissonance. It ends with Orfeo's resolve to retrieve Euridice from the underworld, portrayed by the descending line.
  • First Public Concerts in England

    First Public Concerts in England
    England pioneered public concerts in the 1670s. Public concerts then gradually spread throughout the continent. Music became accessible to anyone who could purchase a ticket, rather than only to the Nobility or the church.
  • JS Bach (Birth)

    JS Bach (Birth)
    JS Bach came from a large family of musicians, and he was born in Eisenach and apparently learned violin from his father. He was also an accomplished organist. Bach married twice, his first wife was Maria Barbara Bach in 1707, and that had seven children together. Following her death, he married Anna Magdalena in 1721, and they had 13 children. Three of his songs became well known composers: JC, CPE, and WF Bach.
  • Antonio Vivaldi's L' Estro Armonico

    Antonio Vivaldi's L' Estro Armonico
    Vivaldi's most important collection was Op. 3: L' Estro Armonico. It was published by Etienne Roger in Amsterdam, the most prestigious publisher in Europe. The piece was the most influential publication of any music in the early 18th century. It launched the immense popularity of the Italian concerto throughout Europe.
  • Rameau's Traite de l' harmonie

    Rameau's Traite de l' harmonie
    This was the most influential of all theoretical works. It became the basis for teaching functional harmony that is still used today. Some of the innovations in this work includes; triad and 7th chord primal importance, defined root of third and reorganized inversions, fundamental bass line, consonance vs. dissonance, and it used terms tonic, dominant, subdominant, and established these three chords as pillars of harmony. Although the piece could modulate, each had a central tonic key.
  • Bach's The Well Tempered Clavier volume 1

    Bach's The Well Tempered Clavier volume 1
    There are 2 separate publications of each of each which has 24 preludes and fugues in each major and minor keys. These demonstrate the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in hear-equal temperament. This was very significant during this time period because you could play all 24 major and minor keys with out having to retune the instrument.
  • Pre-Classical Period

    Pre-Classical Period
    The Pre-Classical period is coexistent with the late Baroque Period. Handel was moving into the pre-classical style that everyone liked, but Bach was still writing in the Baroque style which no one really cared for anymore.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (birth)

    Franz Joseph Haydn (birth)
    Haydn was the most celebrated composer of his day. His instrumental works of the 1770s firmly established the Viennese Classical style. He was self taught, and he also taught Beethoven. Often called the father of the string quartet and the symphony. Hayden's works were catalogued in the 20th century by Anthony Van Hoboken, and his works are known by their "H" number.
  • Handel's Messiah

    Handel's Messiah
    This masterpiece was completed in 1741, but it premiered in Dublin in 1742, during Leht (not Christmas). The libretto, taken from the Bible, does not tell a story, but presents a series of contemplations on Christmas ideas. The texts extend from the prophecies of Messiah to the Resurrection.
  • JS Bach (death)

    JS Bach (death)
  • WA Mozart

    WA Mozart
    He was the original child prodigy, and he also was a virtuoso pianist and violinist. He wrote his first symphony at the age of 9, and his first opera at the age of 12. Because of his exposure to the international musical styles as a youth, Mozart synthesized all of these national styles into his own compositional style in adulthood. He got a position is Salzburg which didn't go well because he couldn't handle authority. He was also one of the first musicians to become a freelance musician.
  • Viennese Classical

    Viennese Classical
    The Viennese Classical was where all the these styles of classical came together for international style.
  • Le Chevalier de Saint Georges as director of Concertos des Amateurs

    Le Chevalier de Saint Georges as director of Concertos des Amateurs
    Le Chevalier de Saint Georges was a significant musician in the Paris scene. He directed one of the finest orchestras in Europe which was the Concertos des Amateur. He composed 12 violin concertos and 18 string quartets. He was called the black Mozart, and also U.S. President John Adams called him, "the most accomplished man in Europe."
  • Le Chevalier de Saint Georges as director of Concertos des Amateurs (end)

    Le Chevalier de Saint Georges as director of Concertos des Amateurs (end)
    The end of Le Chevalier de Saint Georges position as director of Concertos des Amateurs.
  • Mozart's Don Giovanni

    Mozart's Don Giovanni
    This was a libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. This opera is based on the legend of Don Juan. It was set in Spain and also sung in Italian. the language of the opera is determined by the composer/librettist, not by the locale of the story.
  • WA Mozart (death)

    WA Mozart (death)
  • Hayden's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise"

    Hayden's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise"
  • Period: to

    Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C minor

    He constructs an entire 4 mvt. symphony out of four notes. He uses themes vs. motif, short-short-short-long. This song depicted "fate knocking at the door" for his impending deafness. This symphony was also used in WWII by the Allies to send messages across enemy lines. The reason for this song going from C minor to C major, was to symbolize the struggles for victory.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (death)

    Franz Joseph Haydn (death)
  • Schubert "Erlkonig"

    This piece was one of the 59 songs he set the texts by JW Goethe. This was also the first song that Schubert attempted to have published. He sent it to Breitopf und Hartel, who was not interested and mistakenly returned it to another Franz Schubert.
  • Rossini II Barbiere di Siviglia

    A caratina is a entrance aria in which a character introduces themselves. Factotum means "jack of all trades" This piece is considered a patter aria, and they are sometimes mixed with nonsense syllables. They are repeated often, sung with incredible speed and precision.
  • Nicolo Paganini 24 Caprices for Violin, op.1

    This piece was dedicated to "All Artistic" which are professional musicians. Caprice means humorous, capricious work characterized by a departure from current stylist norm. This song was deemed "unplayable" by many. He used theme and variations, and the theme served as a bass for variations by other composers such ass Brahms, Liszt, and Rachmaninoff.
  • Berlioz Symphonic Fantastique

    This piece was inspired by his obsession with Shakespearean actress Harriet Smithson, whom he married and later divorced. It was one of the first programmatic symphonies. Berlioz employs a recurring melody, which he called the idee fixe, which means fixed idea or obsession, to represent her. The theme appears in each movement and is transformed to suit the mood and situation of the story.
  • Period: to

    Frederic Chopin Mazurkas Op. 7

    This piece is a set of 5 mazurkas. It is a typical performance of all 5 mazurkas and it takes a little over eleven minutes.
  • Fanny Mendelssohm-Hensel "Das Jahr"

    Features character pieces twelve months plus a postlude.
  • Period: to

    Louis Moreau Gottschalk Souvenir de Porto Rico

    Gibaros were peasants who farmed the inner parts of Puerto Rico. He creates a theme based on "Si me dan pastels, les denmelos clients" a Puerto Rican song played by wandering bands on Christmas Eve. The form of the work suggests the sound of the band musicians in the distance who gradually approach, pass by, and march away.
  • Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition

    It is a suite of ten pieces composed for piano. The piece was composed by Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky. It is his most famous piano composition, and it became a showpiece for many virtuoso pianists.
  • Bizet Carmen

    It is an opera comique with spoken dialogue instead of recitative. The plots are comedies or semiserious dramas. The character Carmen is a Gypsy, a mezzo soprano, and she has a low seductive vocal range. There is an augmented 2nd motive used to represent her as the exotic "other".
  • Wagner Der Ring des Nibelungen

    Wagner's music dramas featured continuous music, extensive use of leitmotifs. He shows elimination of musical numbers to enhance continuity. This piece was a cycle of four German language epic music dramas, and it was based on characters from Norse sagas and the Nibelungenlied.
  • Brahms Symphony No.4

    It was apart of his last symphonies. Brahms began working on the piece in Muzzuschlag, then in Austro-Hungarian Empire. The symphony is also divided into four movements.
  • Mahler Symphony No. 1

    The piece was composed when Mahler was second conductor at Leipzig Opera, Germany. He describe the song as a symphonic poem, and a tone poem in symphonic form. The piece premiered in Vigado concert Hall and was not well received by the audience.
  • Claude Debussy "Voiles" from Preludes Bool 1

    This was a book published as a tribute to Chopin on the 100th anniversary of his birth. Each Prelude has a descriptive title indicated at the end of each work in parenthesis, that was meant to suggest or evoke images much like impressionistic painting Voiles can mean "sails, sailboats, masks, veils."
  • Arnold Schonberg Pierrot Lunaire

    Song cycle take from an Expressionistic poetic cycle by Albert Giraud, Scored for female voice, piano, flute, clarinet, violin, and cello. He uses sprechstimme technique,"a cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation Britannica.
  • Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring

    He was commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev Director of the Ballet Russe. Was choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky. Subtitled scenes from Pagan Russia. Part 1 was the Adoration of the Earth. and Part 2 is the sacrifice of the chosen one.
  • Manuel de Falla Homenaje (Homage)

    Published in Tombeau de Claude Debussy, a collection of 10 works composed in memory of Debussy, who had died of cancer in 1918. Quotes Debussy's piano work Soiree dans Grenade. He moved to Granada in 1920.
  • George and Ira Gershwin "I Got Rhythm"

    This piece is a Tin Pan Alley song and the origin of "Tin Pan" is believed to refer to the sound of the many upright pianos used by the song pluggers to pitch their new songs to artists. The resulting cacophony was comparable to banging on tin pans.
  • Margaret Bonds "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"

    This piece was written by Margaret Bonds who was a Pupil of Florence Price. Introduced Price to Langston Hughes and other leaders of the Harlem Renaissance. With this piece she used a poem by Hughes and made it into a song.
  • Dimitri Shostakonich Symphony No. 5

    He outwardly conformed to socialist realism, but there are hints of sarcasm, bitterness and mourning throughout the work. It was inspired by the symphonies of Beethoven and Mahler.
  • Duke Ellington Cottontail

    Cottontail is a contrafact, a new tune composed over a harmonic progression borrowed from a particular song in this case, the chorus (also called "rhythm changes" of Gershwin's I Got Rhythm) Ellington composed the work to showcase specific members of his band. It follows this standard jazz form: a tune given at the beginning, is followed by a series of choruses in the same form as the chorus in " I Got Rhythm."
  • Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring

    This is a musical composition by Aaron Copland. It premiered in 1944 and achieved a widespread and enduring popularity. The music, scored for a thirteen member chamber orchestra, was created upon commission of the choreographer and dancer Martha Graham with funds from the Coolidge Foundation.
  • John Cage Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano

    The score gives precise instructions for altering 45 of the pianos strings to produce percussive sounds. Mainly with inserting pennies, screws bolts, wood, etc. in between the strings. The works are meant to portray the Rasa Indian tradition of 8 permanent emotions such as pain heroism, eroticism, etc. Therefore, the music is continuous.
  • Miles Davis Kind of Blue

    This is a album of American Jazz trumpeter composer Miles Davis. In this recording, Davis led a sextet featuring saxophonist John Coltrane and Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, pianist Bill Evans, bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Jimmy Cobb, and pianist Winton Kelly appearing on one track in place of Evans.
  • George Crumb Ancient Voices of Children

    This pieces is a cycle of 5 songs with 2 instrumental interludes. It's based on texts by the Spanish Poet Federico Garcia Lorca. Unconventional sound sources, special effects from conventional instruments. New and unusual effects always have musical purpose, evoke extramusical associations. This was scored for a Soprano, Boy Soprano, Harmonica, Harp, Toy Piano, and Percussion.
  • John Adams Short Ride In A Fast Machine

    This work is by John Adams, he applies the description "fanfare for orchestra" to this work and to the earlier Tromba Lontana. The former is also known as fanfare for Great Woods because it was commissioned for the Great Woods Festival of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra.