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MUSIC TIMELINE

  • 3000 BCE

    THE ANCIENT AGES

    THE ANCIENT AGES
    The Ancient Ages is the period of history that begins with the invention of writing around 3000 BC and ends with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.
  • 400

    THE MIDDLE AGES

    THE MIDDLE AGES
    The Middle Ages or Middle Ages is the historical period of Western civilisation from the 5th to the 15th century. It began in 476, the year of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and ended in 1492, the year in which Colón arrived to America.
  • 700

    Gregorian chant

    Gregorian chant
    Gregorian chant was the liturgical chant of the Church of Rome, influenced by Gallican chant in the second half of the 8th century, and spread throughout the West at the same time as the Latin rite itself.
  • 992

    Guido d'Arezzo

    Guido d'Arezzo
    He perfected musical writing with the incorporation of the tetragram, which was a musical pattern of four horizontal lines, a precursor of the stave with which the heights of the sound were fixed with greater precision, a system similar to today's, as well as pneumatic notation.
  • 1098

    Hildegard von Bingen

    Hildegard von Bingen
    Hildegard von Bingen, the saint who first described the female orgasm. Caption, Hildegard von Bingen, also known as the Rhine Sibyl and Teutonic prophetess: German saint, composer, writer, philosopher, naturalist, physician, abbess, mystic and prophetess.
  • 1100

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    Bernart de Ventadorn
    Also known as Bernart de Ventadour, he was a popular Provençal troubadour, composer and poet.
  • 1150

    Leonin

    Leonin
    Along with Perotin, the first known composer of polyphonic organum, related to the School of Notre Dame.
  • 1155

    Perotin

    Perotin
    He was a medieval French composer, who was born in Paris between 1155 and 1160 and died around 1230. He is considered the most important composer of the School of Notre Dame de Paris,
  • 1170

    Ars Antiqua

    Ars Antiqua
    Ars antiqua, also called Ars veterum or Ars vetus, refers to the music of Europe from the late Middle Ages roughly between 1170 and 1310, encompassing the period of the Notre Dame School of polyphony and the years thereafter. It covers the 12th and 13th centuries.
  • Nov 23, 1221

    Alfonso X el Sabio

    Alfonso X el Sabio
    He was the son of the Castilian-Leonese monarch Ferdinand III and his wife, the German princess Beatrix of Swabia. Alfonso X was king of Castile and León between 1252, the year of his father's death, and 1284, the year of his death.
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    He was a French composer and poet. He was the most prolific author of the 14th century, both in music and poetry. His musical compositions include all the usual forms of his time and mix conservative and progressive elements.
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini.

    Francesco Landini.
    He was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet, instrument maker and astrologer. He was one of the most famous and admired composers of the second half of the 14th century and undoubtedly the most famous composer in Italy.
  • 1400

    Ars Nova

    Ars Nova
    Designates the musical production, both French and Italian, after the last works of the ars antiqua until the predominance of the Burgundian school,
  • 1400

    Johannes Gutenberg

    Johannes Gutenberg
    Johannes Gutenberg was a German inventor who created the printing press with movable metal type and caused books to be mass-produced.
  • 1400

    THE RENAISSANCE

    THE RENAISSANCE
    The Renaissance is a cultural phenomenon that takes up the principles of classical antiquity and updates them through humanism. Humanism is thus the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that links the culture of the time with classical antiquity; it is the philosophical and cultural aspect of the Renaissance.
  • Jun 12, 1468

    Juan del Encina

    Juan del Encina
    He was a poet, musician and playwright of the Spanish Renaissance at the time of the Catholic Monarchs. He is considered, along with the Guipuzcoan Juan de Anchieta, to be one of the greatest exponents of religious and secular polyphony in Spain in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martín Lutero

    Martín Lutero
    He was an Augustinian theologian, philosopher and Catholic friar who initiated and promoted the Protestant Reformation in Germany and whose teachings inspired the theological and cultural doctrine known as Lutheranism.
  • 1500

    Cristóbal de Morales

    Cristóbal de Morales
    Spanish composer. An undisputed master of sacred polyphonic music, his work is considered one of the summits of Spanish Renaissance polyphony.
  • Mar 30, 1510

    Antonio de Cabezón

    Antonio de Cabezón
    Composer and organist considered to be the best instrumentalist of his time. He was chamber musician to Carlos I and Felipe II.
  • Feb 3, 1525

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    He is seen as the most representative author of polyphonic works in keeping with the new demands of the Counter-Reformation. His works from these years are notable for the clarity achieved.
  • 1532

    Orlando di Lasso

    Orlando di Lasso
    He was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. Along with Palestrina and Victoria, he is considered one of the most influential composers of the 16th century.
  • 1533

    Andrea Gabrieli

    Andrea Gabrieli
    He was an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. An uncle of perhaps the most famous composer Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers.
  • 1543

    William Byrd

    William Byrd
    William Byrd was a British composer, the most famous of the late Tudor and early Stuart periods, and a member of the Late Renaissance.
  • 1544

    Maddalena Casulana

     Maddalena Casulana
    Maddalena Casulana was an Italian composer, violinist and singer of the late Renaissance. She was the first woman composer to have an entire volume of her music printed and published in the history of Western music.
  • 1548

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Tomás Luis de Victoria
    He was a Catholic priest, chapel master and celebrated polyphonic composer of the Spanish Renaissance. He has been considered one of the most relevant and advanced composers of his time, with an innovative style that heralded the imminent baroque.
  • 1555

    Giovanni Gabrieli

     Giovanni Gabrieli
    He was an Italian composer and organist, born and died in Venice. One of the most influential musicians of his time, he represents the culmination of the Venetian school, framed in the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music.
  • Feb 25, 1555

    Alonso Lobo

    Alonso Lobo
    Alonso Lobo de Borja was a Spanish Renaissance chapel master of religious music. Although not as famous as Victoria, he was held in high regard.
  • Mar 8, 1566

    Carlo Gesualdo

    Carlo Gesualdo
    He was an Italian composer, one of the most significant figures of late Renaissance music with intensely expressive madrigals and pieces of sacred music with a chromaticism that would not be heard again until the end of the 19th century.
  • May 15, 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Claudio Monteverdi
    Claudio Monteverdi, cuyo nombre completo era Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi, fue un compositor, violagambista, cantante, director de coro y sacerdote italiano.
  • THE BAROQUE

    THE BAROQUE
    Baroque is understood as the architectural style produced in the 17th and part of the 18th centuries (1600 to 1750), characterised by a profusion of ornamentation in contrast to the sober style of the classical Renaissance.
  • Giacomo Carissimi

    Giacomo Carissimi
    He was one of the most eminent Italian composers of the early Baroque period and one of the leading representatives of the Roman School. He was born in Marino, near Rome, in 1604 or 1605.
  • Barbara Strozzi

    Barbara Strozzi
    An Italian Baroque singer and composer, she published eight volumes of her own music during her lifetime and had more secular music in print than any other composer of the time.
  • Henry Purcel

    Henry Purcel
    He was a German baroque composer, although his work also had characteristics of early classicism. He is considered the most prolific composer in the history of music. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig.
  • Stradivarius

    Stradivarius
    Antonio Stradivari was Italy's most prominent luthier. The Latin form of his surname, Stradivarius, is used to refer to his instruments.
  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Antonio Vivaldi
    Antonio Vivaldi was a Venetian Baroque composer, violinist, impresario, teacher and Catholic priest. He was nicknamed Il prete rosso because he was a priest and had red hair.
  • Georg Philipp Telemann

    Georg Philipp Telemann
    He was a German baroque composer, although his work also had characteristics of early classicism. He is considered the most prolific composer in the history of music. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig.
  • Georg Friedrich Händel

    Georg Friedrich Händel
    He was a German composer, later naturalised English, considered one of the leading figures in the history of music, especially Baroque music, and one of the most influential composers of Western and world music.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach
    He was a German composer, musician, conductor, chapel master, cantor and teacher of the Baroque period. He was the most important member of one of the most prominent families of musicians in history, with more than 35 famous composers: the Bach family.