Romantic Era

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    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    German poet who helped shape Romanticism
    Writings were influential on our Romantic composers
    Wrote: poetry, dramas, an autobiography, books about literature, 4 novels, and scientific books on anatomy, botany, and color
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    Luigi Cherubini

    Italian composer
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    Napoleon Bonaparte

    Military leader in the French Revolution
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    German Romantic composer
    Transitional figure from the Classical to the Romantic style
    Composed all genres: 9 symphonies, 1 bad opera, so much piano music, Lieder, and many chamber pieces
    Virtuoso pianist
    Expert improvisor
    Made his living in Vienna as a performer before he gained fame as a composer
    Created heroic music right out of the French Revolution
    Began loosing his hearing young
    Developed themes for longer stretches than other composers
    Took older forms and expanded them
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    Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich

    Chancellor of Austria
    Hosted the Congress of Vienna and was instrumental in shaping social activities
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    Alessandro Manzoni

    Had a difficult life
    Early death of his wife in 1833 was followed by those of several of his children, and then of his mother.
    Married again in 1837 and that wife who also died
    Out of his 9 children, only 2 outlived him
    The death of his eldest son was the final blow which hastened the poet’s end
    Fell ill immediately and died of cerebral meningitis
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    Carl Maria von Weber

    The creator of German Romantic opera with Der Freischutz
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    French Revolution

    The “common” people saw themselves as empowered to break free from oppression
    Nobility oppression of the commoners
    Commoners revolted
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a military leader
  • Lodoiska

    French opera although composed by Italian composer Cherubini
    Plot: defeat of oppression dramatized as a heroic rescue from enslavement and imprisonment; this needed to display liberty, equality, and heroism fueled not only opera, but music performances in general, not just in France, but in other parts of Europe as well
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    Giacomo Meyerbeer

    Jewish German composer who studied in Italy and composed French opera in Paris
    Known primarily for grand operas: "Les Huguenots" and "Overture Act V – Ein feste Burg"
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    Gioachino Rossini

    Continued Mozart’s operatic style: THE most famous composer in Europe between 1815 and 1835
    One of 3 composers that mark the high point of bel canto
    Most important opera composer in the early 19th century
    Also most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
  • Paris Conservatoire

    Paris Conservatoire
    France founded the Paris Conservatory as a state institution for the training of musicians, which replaced the training in churches and courts
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    Gaetano Donizetti

    Wrote over 70 operas
    One of 3 composers that mark the high point of bel canto
    Italian opera composer
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    Heinrich Heine

    Poet who helped shape Romanticism
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    Franz Schubert

    Composed over 600 Lieder in his life
    Composed 17 operas and Singpiele, 9 symphonies, 35 chamber works, 200 choral pieces, and more
    Freelance composer
    Composed in all genres
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    Romantic genre
    Was seen as a distinct historical period or definable artistic style
    Represented a reaction against Enlightenment values of rationality and universality
    Favored emotionality and individuality
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    Vincenzo Bellini

    Famous for his opera "Norma"
    One of 3 composers that mark the high point of bel canto
    Italian opera composer
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    Hector Berlioz

    French Romantic composer, conductor, critic, and author
    Innovator of orchestration techniques that created the modern orchestral sound
    Wrote a treatise on orchestration
    Composed works that are neither operas, symphonies, or oratorios
    1 of the 1st conductors to stand in front of the orchestra and conduct
    Supplemented his income by writing music criticism and was good at it
    1 of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres
  • Fidelio

    Beethoven's only opera
    Was a rescue opera
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    Fanny Mendelssohn

    Sister to Felix
    Composer and supporter of the arts
    Given the same musical training as her brother and was also a child prodigy
    Felix wrote to her and asked her not to publish her works just in case “they should bring shame to the family”
    -More than 100 works for solo piano
    -More than 200 Lieder
    -24 works for chorus
    -Several works for orchestra including an overture
    -Works for various chamber ensembles
    She cultivated the musical and cultural salon in her home
  • Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Opus 67

    Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Opus 67
    Composed by Beethoven
    First movement
    -Uses an insistent rhythmic drive
    -Opening motive is used throughout all movements as a unifying device (cyclic symphony)
    -Constructed almost entirely from the 4-note opening motive
    Composed in Vienna 1804-1808 (1st performed in 1808)
    Includes 3 trombones and a piccolo in the 4th movement
    Strings still dominate thematically
    replaces the minuet with a scherzo (movement III)
    Scherzo moves attacca into Mvt. IV
    Finale is in C Major
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    Felix Mendelssohn

    Romantic composer of most genres
    Famous conductor, pianist and composer, and founder of the Leipzig Conservatory
    Brother to Fanny
    Started an “old music” trend (Baroque choral-orchestral works by Bach and Handel were again performed)
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    Robert Schumann

    German romantic composer
    Pianist, editor, writer, and bad conductor
    Married Clara Wieck
    Founder and editor for "The New Journal for Music" in Germany
    Wrote 4 symphonies, a piano concerto, a lot of chamber and piano music and 1 bad opera
    Close friend to Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms (when he was younger), and violinist, Joseph Joachim
    Promoter of music
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    Fredric Chopin

    Poet of the piano
    Playing style was the most delicate of all performers of his day
    Appreciated by other musicians and by the upper class
    Educated at the Conservatory of Warsaw in Poland before moving to Paris
    Found great success in the Salons
    Credited with originating the modern piano style
    Everything he composed had piano
    Style was virtuosic, yet poetic
    His character pieces were standards in piano repertoire
    ballades, preludes, etudes, mazurkas, etc.
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    Franz Liszt

    Piano virtuoso
  • Philharmonic Society

    Philharmonic Society
    Founded by Johann Salomon in London
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    Richard Wagner

    German composer who composed operas
    Composed some early traditional operas
    Wrote what he called music dramas
    His music dramas were his idea of opera where all the elements were equal: Music, poetry that he wrote, drama, philosophy, staging, design, acting, and more
    Detested the Italian start-stop style of opera
    Changed opera, harmony, & music in general
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    Giuseppe Verdi

    Most important Italian composer in the mid to late 19th century
    Primarily an opera composer
    Composed a very popular Requiem, some other choral music, and 2 string quartets
    Hailed as a hero of Italy and audiences yelled “Viva Verdi” at his productions
    Composed 28 operas
  • Erlkonig

    1 of Goethe's most famous Lieders (he wrote it at 18 years old)
    Had 1 singer and 4 characters (Narrator, Father, Son, & Erlking)
    Based on the legend that whoever is touched by the king of the elves must die
    Several German words have vague meanings, so where they are riding to is not clear:
    (the German word “Hof” can mean “yard,” “courtyard,” “farm,” or royal “court”)
    The reader must imagine the details
  • The Carlsbad Decrees

    The Carlsbad Decrees
    Placed severe limits on freedom of expression by individuals (including artists) and institutions such as Universities and presses
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    Jacques Offenbach

    Known for his operettes: "La belle Helene" & "Orphee aux enfers"
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    Clara Wieck

    Married Robert Schumann
    Composer, teacher, and famous pianist
    Child prodigy (virtuoso) and performer
    Already wrote the majority of her piano concerto at age 13
    By age 15, she had composed several works including a piano concerto
    Toured as a concert pianist
    -1 piano concerto
    -Chamber music, songs, and many pieces for solo piano
    -Cadenzas for piano concertos by Mozart and Beethoven
    Wrote "Piano Concerto in A Minor"
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    Der Freischutz

    1st German romantic opera
    Means "The Magic Bullet
  • Royal Academy of Music

    Royal Academy of Music
    London opened its own music school
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    Bedrich Smetana

    Romantic composer
    Best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called Má vlast (The Moldau is the second tone poem in this cycle)
    Considered the founder of Czech music
    Took part in the fighting in the 1848 nationalist uprising
    A pianist and a child prodigy
    Identified with the progressive ideas of Liszt and Wagner
    Wanted to create specifically Czech music but lost artistic support in Prague where he was the Provisional Theatre’s director
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    Stephen Foster

    American song composer
    1st American to make a living as a professional songwriter
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    Louis Moreau Gottschalk

    American Nationalist from New Orleans
    Child prodigy on the piano (endorsed by Chopin)
    At age 7, substituted for his teacher at the organ at Mass
    Sent to Paris to study
  • Symphony orchestrated by Berlioz

    Hector Berlioz orchestrated a program symphony in a new and modern way
    Orchestration was innovative
    Concept behind his semi-autobiographical storyline for the program symphony was revolutionary
  • Symphonie fantastique

    Symphonie fantastique
    Written by Berlioz
    Program symphony in 5 movements
    1. Reveries, Passions
    2. A Ball
    3. Scene in the Fields
    4. March to the Scaffold
    5. Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath
  • Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung

    Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung
    A music journal that reviewed new music and composers
  • Mazurka in B-flat minor, Opus 24, No. 4

    Mazurka in B-flat minor, Opus 24, No. 4
    Composed by Fredric Chopin
    Character piece and mazurka
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    Johannes Brahms

    Was a young German romantic composer
    Continued the classical traditions, especially in form
    Scholar; one of the first editors of J. S. Bach’s music
    Composed 4 symphonies, choral music, piano music, lieder, chamber music, overtures, but no operas
    Composed 2 serenades before he wrote “true” symphonies.
    Wrote his first symphony at 40 years old
  • Notturno in G Minor

    Notturno in G Minor
    Composed by Fanny Mendelssohn
    Character piece: subgenre Nocturne
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    Georges Bizet

    Blended styles into opéra comique
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    Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

    Russian composer
    His Russian nationalist colleagues did not support his music
    Composed 8 operas, 7 symphonies, 3 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, symphonic poems, overtures, chamber, keyboard, choral music, and songs
    Composed symphonies and symphonic poems
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    Romantic genre that was a reaction against Germany by countries who wanted to proclaim their own nationalistic worth and patriotism in the face of Germany’s arrogant stance
    Germany exerted its artistic superiority in Europe while other countries responded with ideas that promoted the worthiness of their own cultures
    National schools came up in all non-Germanic European countries
    Prominent national schools of composers arose in Russia, Scandinavia, Spain, England, and Bohemia
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    Antonin Dvorak

    Czechoslovakian nationalist composer
    Friends with Brahms
    Took an interest in the US folk music but didn't quote folk tunes but composed in the idiom
    Studied Black American cultures and music of the Native Americans
    Decided to use pentatonicism in his new symphony of 1893, which quickly became known as the “New World” symphony (actually “From the New World”)
    Used the tonalities, melodic shapes, harmonies, and general musical characteristics of the folk music and not the music itself
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    Edward Grieg

    Norwegian nationalist composer
    "Peer Gynt' (incidental music), which was a famous piano concerto of his
  • Macbeth

    One of Verdi's operas
  • Classicism

    Romantic genre
    Was seen as a distinct historical period or definable artistic style
  • Rigoletto

    One of Verdi's operas
    First produced in Venice, Italy
    Act III, “La donna è mobile”
    -beginning with recitative with Gilda and her father watching the Duke flirt with Maddelena
    -Homophonic texture
    -scene continues with dialog between Sparafucile and Rigoletto
    -older type of recitative is not used here
    -quartet between the Duke, Maddelena, Gilda, and Rigoletto follows
  • Symphony no.4 in Dm op.120

    Symphony no.4 in Dm op.120
    Composed by Schumann
  • Il trovatore

    Il trovatore
    One of Verdi's operas
  • La traviata

    La traviata
    One of Verdi's operas
  • Variations in E-flat on an Original Theme

    Variations in E-flat on an Original Theme
    Composed by Schumann
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    Leos Janacek

    Czechoslovakian composer
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    Le banjo: Fantasie grotesque

    Means "The Banjo"
    Piece composed by Louis Gottschalk
    Character piece
    A B A coda
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    Edward Elgar

    English nationalist composer
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    Giacomo Puccini

    Italian composer
    The last great Italian operas were written by him
    Didn't compose a lot, but his compositions are treasured today
    Was the most important Italian composer after Verdi
    At 17, he composed seriously
    1st pieces were for organ based on his own improvisations from popular Tuscan folksongs and Italian operas
    Decided to pursue a career in operatic composition
    Also composed motets, songs, a mass, and cantatas, a few instrumental works including works for solo piano
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    Gustav Mahler

    Most known as a conductor and secondly as a composer
    Bridged the Austro-German romantic traditions of composing with the new modern styles in the 20th century
    Music was neglected until after the end of WWII
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    Ignacy Jan Paderewski

    Polish pianist and composer
    Prime minister and foreign minister of Poland
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    Isaac Albeniz

    Spanish nationalist composer
  • Italy

    Became a country
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    Frederick Delius

    English nationalist composer who also lived in France and the US
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    The Bartered Bride

    Comic opera composed by Smetana that played a large role in establishing Czech music
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    Jean Sibelius

    Finnish nationalist composer
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    Enrique Granados (1867-1916), Spain

    Spanish nationalist composer
  • Aida

    One of Verdi's operas
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    Alexander Scriabin

    Russian composer
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    Ralph Vaughan Williams

    English composer
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    Sergei Rachmaninoff

    Russian composer
  • Messa da Requiem

    Messa da Requiem
    Composed by Verdi
  • Ma vlast (My Country)

    Ma vlast (My Country)
    Composed by Smetana (his best known work)
    Cycle of 6 tone poems
    No. 2: “Vltava” (“The Moldau”)
    Tone poem
    Used tone painting to evoke the sounds of the Moldau River
    Wrote a program for the piece as an explanation
    For each of the places that Smetana mentions, he has musical themes and material to depict the scenes
  • Carmen

    Composed by Bizet
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    Manuel de Falla

    Spanish composer
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    Manuel de Falla

    Spanish nationalist composer
  • Swan Lake

    Swan Lake
    Composed by Tchaikovsky
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    Bela Bartok

    Hungarian composer
    Published 2000 tunes that he collected from Eastern European countries
    Wrote books and articles on this music
    Arranged and created music based on these traditional tunes
    Virtuoso pianist
    Taught piano at the Budapest Academy of Music
    Developed a set of 153 pieces in 6 books of graded difficulty for teaching
    Fused folk elements with the highly developed modern techniques of compositions
    Wrote in all genres: Opera, string quartets, concertos, orchestral music
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    Zoltan Kodaly

    Hungarian composer
  • Prague Carnival

    Prague Carnival
    Smetana began composing this symphonic suite but couldn't get past the introduction
  • Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90

    Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90
    Composed by Brahms
    Traditional 4 movement symphony
    Movement 3 is not a Minuet and Trio
    -III. "Poco allegretto"
    -has an ascending 3-note motive
    This symphony is a good representation of late romantic absolute music
    Sonata and rondo forms
    Traditional development of themes and motives
    Harmonic language is more colorful and “modern”
    Brahms turned the motive into significant musical material and develops it over and over while creating a modern sonata-ish form
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    Ernest Bloch

    Nationalist composer
  • Otello

    Composed by Verdi
    Italian Tragic Opera
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    Louis Durey

    member of Les Six
  • The Sleeping Beauty

    The Sleeping Beauty
    Composed by Tchaikovsky
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    Sergei Prokofiev

    Russian composer
  • The Nutcracker

    The Nutcracker
    Composed by Tchaikovsky
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    Germaine Tailleferre

    Member of Les Six
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    Darius Milhaud

    Member of Les Six
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    Arthur Honegger

    Member of Les Six
  • Manon Lescaut

    Manon Lescaut
    Opera by Pucchini
  • Falstaff

    Last opera composed by Verdi
    Comic opera
    In the last scene he composes a fugue with the words: “All the world’s a joke. We are all born fools.”
  • Symphony No. 9 in E minor, From the New World

    Symphony No. 9 in E minor, From the New World
    Composed by Dvorak who composed this symphony “from the new world” that he was visiting
    Symphony can be seen as a descriptive landscape
    Imbued the symphony with the flavor of America as he saw it
    Traditional aspects
    -4 movements with expected forms
    -strings are the primary group of instruments
    -1st movement is in sonata form
    -largely diatonic
    -uses melodies reminiscent of spirituals and folk tunes
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    Paul Hindemith

    German composer
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    Carl Orff

    German composer
  • La boheme

    La boheme
    Opera by Puccini
  • Finlandia

    Composed by Jean Sibelius
    Tone poem cycle
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    Francis Poulenc

    Member of Les Six
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    Georges Auric

    Member of Les Six
  • Tosca

    Opera by Puccini
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    Kurt Weill

    German composer
  • Madame Butterfly

    Madame Butterfly
    Versimo opera by Puccini
    Premiere was a disaster due to audience being rude
    The story: A young geisha named Cio-Cio-San( Madame Butterfly) from Nagasaki has renounced her profession and religion to marry an American naval officer named Pinkerton, and after they marry, Pinkerton departs. When he returns several years later, with a new American wife on his arm, he learns that Butterfly had a baby, their son, while he was gone.
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    Michael Tippett

    English composer
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    Dmitri Shostakovich

    Russian composer
  • Das Lied von der Erde

    Das Lied von der Erde
    "Song of the Earth"
    Orchestral song cycle by Mahler
    A set of six poems
    No. 3, “Von der Jugend” (“Of Youth”)
    Pentatonic melodies
    Folk-like quality in this Lied descends from the Austrian tradition of Brahms and German Romanticism
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    Benjamin Britten

    English composer
  • Gianni Schicchi

    Gianni Schicchi
    Opera by Puccini
  • Turandot

    Opera by Puccini
  • Mikhail Baryshnikov

    Mikhail Baryshnikov
    (Still alive) One of the most famous Russian ballet dancers of recent times