Romantic era

The Romantic Period (1820-1900)

  • Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842)

    Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842)
    Italian composer who wanted to display liberty and equality. Wrote the French opera "Lodoiska", in which the protagonist defeats oppression staged as a heroic rescue from enslavement and imprisonment. This is known as a "Rescue Opera".
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

    Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
    The transitional figure from classical to romantic. Made his living in Vienna as a performer. Virtuoso pianist. Started losing his hearing as a young man. His paranoia and his eccentric nature isolated him from society. He developed themes more and for longer stretches than other composers. Took older forms and expanded them. Beethoven truly expanded on what composers before him dreamed of.
  • Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)

    Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
    The creator of German Romantic opera.
  • Period: to

    The French Revolution

    Fed up with the nobility, the common people saw themselves as empowered to break free from the oppression like the Americans. The commoners revolted, resulting in the deaths of a lot of nobility. After the revolution, Napoleon was placed into power and declared himself dictator.
  • Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864)

    Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864)
    Jewish German composer who studied in Italy and composed French opera in Paris.
  • Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)

    Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
    Continued the Mozart operatic style.
  • Paris Conservatoire

    Paris Conservatoire
    Was founded by France as a state institution for the training of musicians. Replaced the training in churches and courts. Cherubini was on the founding faculty.
  • Franz Schubert (1797-1828)

    Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
    German composer who composed over 600 Lieder in his life. Mostly a freelance composer. Sponsored by his friends from the middle class and the wealthy low nobility. Held gatherings in his home called a Schubertiade, which patrons would pay to see professional musicians play. The first studio class.
  • Gaetoan Donizetti (1797-1848)

    Gaetoan Donizetti (1797-1848)
    Wrote over 70 operas.
  • Shift to Romantic

    Shift to Romantic
    Symphonies liberated instrument music, they became equal to operas in forms of entertainment. Attitudes shift from dance and popular music to serious forms. Instrumental music was thought to have a special connection or direct pathway to the "essence" of things. Influenced the new audience etiquette and cumulated in a concert culture. New genres such as Lieder, Character Pieces, and a focus to Virtuosity in Solo Concertos.
  • Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)

    Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)
    Famous for his opera "Norma".
  • Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)

    Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
    French composer and conductor. Innovator of orchestration techniques that created the modern orchestra sound. Wrote a treatise on orchestration. One of the first conductors to stand in front of the orchestra and conduct.
  • Fanny Mendelssohn (1805-1847)

    Fanny Mendelssohn (1805-1847)
    Older sister of Felix. Given the same musical training as her brother had. The siblings were told to be equal in talent. Never published her works under her own name. Over 100 works for solo piano, more than 200 Lieder, and several works for orchestra.
  • Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)

    Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
    Revived J.S. Bach's music. Told his sister not to publish her music. Rumored to have published his sister's music for her.
  • Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)

    Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
    Was one of the most delicate piano performers due to sickness. Educated at the Conservatory of Warsaw in Poland. found great success in Salons throughout Europe. Originated the modern piano style.
  • Robert Schuman (1810-1856)

    Robert Schuman (1810-1856)
    German composer, writer, and pianist. Over 300 Lieder, a piano concerto, and a lot of chamber music.
  • Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)

    Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
    The most important Italian composer in the mid to late 19th century. Primarily an opera composer.
  • Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

    Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
    Changed opera, harmony, and music in general. Wrote music dramas, and was very egotistical about his work. Never learned to play an instrument. Did everything except performing the opera.
  • The Ophicleide

    The Ophicleide
    A keyed brass instrument similar in range to a trombone. Invented by Jean Hilaire Aste.
  • The Carlsbad Decrees of 1819

    The Carlsbad Decrees of 1819
    Placed severe limits on freedom of expression by individuals such as Universities and the press.
  • Clara Schuman (1819-1896)

    Clara Schuman (1819-1896)
    Famous virtuoso as a child. Married Robert and had 8 children. Composed chamber music, songs, and many pieces for solo piano.
  • Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)

    Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)
    Known for his operettas.
  • Romantic Period in Full Swing

    Objects, art, and life were all romanticized. Emotions were put at the forefront of making music. The composer could truly express what they were feeling. A focus on the past and death were popular themes. No more rules for the form, harmony, chord progression, and orchestration.
  • Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)

    Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
    Bohemian nationalist composer known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called "Ma vlast" (My Country). wrote the tone poem "The Moldau".
  • Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)

    Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869)
    American Nationalist born in New Orleans. A child prodigy on the piano. Unfortunately died at 40 from yellow fever.
  • Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)

    Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
    German romantic composer who continued the classical traditions. Composed symphonies and Lieder.
  • Georges Bizet (1838-1875)

    Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
    Blended styles into opera comique with "Carmen".
  • Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)

    Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
    Russian composer who composed many wonderful ballets that are used and famous today.
  • Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)

    Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)
    Czech Nationalist composer. Wrote a ton of symphonies, most of them are out of the correct printing order starting confusion for people trying to get parts. Inspired by American folk music and the pentatonic scale that was featured in both Native American and Black American music.
  • Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)

    Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
    Norway nationalist composer. Known for famous piano concertos.
  • Edward Elgar (1857-1934)

    Edward Elgar (1857-1934)
    English Nationalist
  • Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)

    Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
    Well trained in music but wanted to do theater. Did not compose a lot, but all of his works are well respected.
  • Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909)

    Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909)
    Spanish Nationalist.
  • Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941)

    Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941)
    Polish pianist and composer. Prime minister and foreign minister of Poland in 1919.
  • Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

    Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
    Mostly known as a conductor. Bohemian. His music was neglected until after WWII. Practiced maximalism.
  • Frederick Delius (1862-1934)

    Frederick Delius (1862-1934)
    English Nationalist who also lived in France and North America.
  • Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)

    Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
    Nationalist composer from Finland. Wrote Finlandia.
  • Enrique Granados (1867-1916)

    Enrique Granados (1867-1916)
    Spanish nationalist composer.
  • Manuel de Falla (1876-1946)

    Manuel de Falla (1876-1946)
    Spanish Nationalist composer.