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Baroque

  • Period: 1567 to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Trained in the Renaissance style
    Adept at composing “modern” music
    Used dissonances in his music (madrigals) for text expression
    Seconda prattica (monody with dissonance that was very expressive)
    Published his ideas and his music
    Extant works:
    -9 books of madrigals
    -Masses, Magnificats, Vespers, Motets
    Italian operas and other dramatic music
    Choirmaster at St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice
  • Period: to

    Girolamo Frescobaldi

    Organist of the earlyBaroque
    Worked at St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome
    Greatly influenced J.S. Bach
    Toccattas, canzonas, dance suites, variation sets
    Canzona, balletto, and corrente
  • Period: to

    Francesca Caccini

    Soprano
    1st woman to compose operas
    Sang lead roles in several early operas (including Peri’s opera "Euridice" when she was 13)
    Highest paid musican in Italy by age 20
    Could play any string instrument (including harpsichord)
    Composed balli, intermezzi, and sacred opera among other vocal works
    Only one extant opera but composed many others
    Wrote all her own texts for songs and her opera
    Involved with male music societies
    Published quite a few of her pieces
  • Dafne

    Dafne
    1st Opera
    Composed by Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri
  • Euridice

    First extant opera
    Composed by Caccini and Peri
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque

    -most expressive melodic device was recitative, which wasn't very melodic in nature but rather a style of text setting that emphasizes the natural rhythms and accents of speech.
    -rhythms were performed more freely in recitative
    -chordal progression harmonies
    -homophonic texture was new, but polyphonic textures continued to be popular
    -strophic and binary forms
    -piano and forte dynamics
    -dialogue style between voice and strings or strings and winds
    -organs, harpsichords, bassoons
  • Orfeo

    Orfeo
    Monteverdi's 1st opera
    Begins with a fanfare opening called a “toccata” followed by an instrumental prelude, then by recitative
  • Period: to

    Barbara Strozzi

    Adopted by Giulio Strozzi
    Studied under Francesco Cavalli at the Accademia degli Unisoni, which was founded by Giulio for her
    Published 8 sets of songs (each dedicated to a different wealthy patron except for one book of madrigals and one book of cantatas for solo voice and continuo, most of her works are ariettas and arias)
    Used various poets as writers for her songs (most were written especially for her)
    Didn't write opera but her songs and cantatas were very dramatic
  • Teatro de San Cassiano

    Teatro de San Cassiano
    1st public opera theater
    Opened in Venice in 1637
  • Period: to

    Louis the 14th of France

    Accomplished dancer (always showed off his legs)
    Was an excellent dancer from age 13
    Believed that ballet demonstrated important qualities of a society (discipline, order, refinement, and restraint)
  • The Coronation of Poppea

    Final opera from Monteverdi (composed at 75)
    Premiered in Venice
    The characters are spread across the social spectrum (emperors to commoners)
    Powerful emotions are expression in recitative, arias, ariosos, and choruses
    Was calculating, ambitious, and smart
  • Period: to

    Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber

    Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist
    Lived in Salzburg
    Very important composers for violin (especially in the violin's early years)
    Wrote catholic sacred music, violin sonatas, and ensemble music
    Developed a new technique of playing the violin, which allowed him to easily
    -reach 6th and 7th positions
    -play double stops and polyphony
    -experiment with scordatura
  • Period: to

    The Ecstasy of Saint Therese

    Marble sculpture sculpted by Gian Lorenzo Bernini during this time
  • Period: to

    Commonwealth

    (Right before Opera in England)
    Staged plays were forbidden in England because the Puritans thought theater was an invention from hell, but composers began setting plays to music
  • L’astratto

    A Cantata by Strozzi
    Means "The Distracted One" in Italian
    Text painting with chromaticism
    Basso Continuo accompaniment
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque

    -Melodies became more organized with use of compositional techniques (repetition, sequence, and contrast)
    -Rhythm became a central element in instrumental music; dotted rhythms (such as French overture) were common in variety of genres; dance rhythms were important
    -24 major and minor keys continued to develop
    -alternating between homophony and polyphony were common in pieces
    -crescendoing and decrescendoing were so understood that they weren't marked in music often
  • Period: to

    Arcangelo Corelli

    Italian composer
    Made clear distinctions between the different types of sonatas
    Was the master of trio sonata
    Wrote Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 3, (a sonata da chiesa)
  • Period: to

    G. F. Handel

    Two very popular orchestral suites:
    "Music for the Royal Fireworks" (a.k.a. "Fireworks")
    "Water Music"
    German composer from Hallewho lived in England who absorbed the Italian style
    Very talented and intelligent
    Worked in Italy early in his career
    Wrote over 40 operas and many Italian cantatas
    Appointed in 1720 as one of the music directors at the Royal Academy of Music in London
    Became a naturalized British subject in 1727
    Produced Italian operas in England for 8 years
  • Period: to

    Henry Purcell

    Singer, organist, composer of instrumental and vocal music
    Worked in the court of Charles II when stage plays were again allowed
    Assimilated the musical styles of Europe:
    -Italian operatic style
    -Grand aspects of French music
    -Lyric melodic quality of English song
    Wrote incidental music for plays
  • Opera Performances Begin in England

    Charles II issued patents for 2 companies of theater troupes, and performances immediately began
  • Period: to

    Alessandro Scarlatti

    The father of composer Domenico Scarlatti
    A teacher in Naples, which many of his students helped him create the new classical style
  • Period: to

    Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

    "The wonder our century" (17th century)
    French
  • Period: to

    Francois Couperin

    French composer
  • Sonata No. 1

    Sonata No. 1
    Composed by Biber
    Mid-Baroque violin sonata
    Opening Praeludium is for violin and basso continuo
    Violin part uses a virtuosic style (similar to solo vocal singing)
    Melodic line allows the soloist to freely express emotions
    The second section uses repetitions of bass
    The finale gives the violinist an opportunity to display virtuosity
    Separate movements were developed later
  • Period: to

    Antonio Vivaldi

    Music director at the Pieta (orphanage for girls in Venice)
    Composed many operas (sacred music and many instrumental works)
    Popular during the 1720s (height of his career) but by 1741, he was forgotten
    Wrote nearly 800 concertos of various types
    -60 ripieno concertos
    -425 concerto grosso types
    -350 solo concertos
    -45 double concertos (mostly for 2 violins)
    Great master of the Baroque concerto (possibly the greatest)
  • Period: to

    Georg Philip Telemann

    German composer
    Extraordinarily prolific

    Composed more than 125 orchestral suites
    Helped establish the French-style orchestral suite in Germany
    Published a collection called “Tafelmusik” in 1733
    Friends with J. S. Bach and the godfather of Bach’s eldest son
  • Period: to

    Jean-Joseph Mouret

    French composer who composed operas, suites, and "grand divertssements" (entertainments)
    His works have been used in tv commercials and other medi
  • Period: to

    Domenico Scarlatti

    Keyboard virtuoso
    Had a progressive style (was aware of his modern flare)
    Wrote over 500 sonatas for harpsichord, operas, cantatas, and keyboard exercises
  • Period: to

    J.S. Bach

    Greatest master of the fugue
    Most important fugal contributions:
    "Well-Tempered Clavier": Collection of preludes and fugues issued in two volumes
    -Volume I (1722 ) contains 24 preludes and fugues (1 in each major & minor key)
    Volume II (1742) also containing 24 preludes and fugues
    “Well-tempered” new system of equal temperament they were experimenting with
    "The Art of Fugue" (left unfinished at the time of his death) contained 14 fugues and 4 canons
    Lost a lot of his sight
  • Dido and Aeneas

    Dido and Aeneas
    Composed by Henry Purcell
    Translates to “When I am Laid In Earth”
    Ground Bass repeated 11 Times
    Monody
    Also known as "Dido's Lament"
  • Invention of Piano

    Invention of Piano
    Piano was invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque

    -melodies were governed by spinning out of musical ideas and sequences, therefore were long and continuous and moved toward a cadence; phrases were not always clearly defined; virtuosity was important
    -basso continuo drove the music; tempos were steady in ensemble music;16th notes were standardized
    -chromaticism was used for expression, modulation, and musical interest
    -polyphonic texture
    -da capo aria form was most popular vocal form while ritornello form was for orchestra
  • Water Music

    Water Music
    Composed by Handel
    Performed for a royal party on the Thames River in London
    22 movements
    The harpsichord (basso continuo) was probably not used at this first performance (because it did not fit on the barge, so it was left behind)
    Suite in D Major
    Movement I: “Allegro”
    Movement II: “Alla Hornpipe”
    Ternary Form
  • Esther

    Esther
    Composed by Handel
  • St. John's Passion

    St. John's Passion
    Composed by Bach
    Composed during his first year in Leipzig
    Performed at the Good Friday Vespers service at the St. Nicholas Church
    Two large parts (intended to have a sermon in the middle)
    40 individual numbers (so it was very long)
    Gospel text is sung by the Evangelist (tenor) in secco recitative
    Direct speech, including the part of Jesus, is sung by other soloists or the choir
    The Passion includes chorales, recitatives (secco and accompanied) and arias
  • Le Quattro stagioni

    Le Quattro stagioni
    Composed by Vivaldi
    The Four Seasons
    Cycle of four violin concertos
    Word painting in instrumental music
    Each concerto is accompanied by a poem that he possibly wrote
    Concerto No. 1 in E - “La primavera” (Spring) (3 movements)
    Concerto No. 2 in G minor - “L’estate” (Summer)
    Concerto No. 3 in F - “L’autunno” (Autumn)
    Concerto No. 4 in F minor - “L’inverno” (Winter)
    (it's unknown when he exactly wrote these but they were all published in 1725)
  • Suite de symphonies

    Suite de symphonies
    Composed by Mouret
    Written for trumpets, violins, oboes, timpani, basses, bassoons, and organ
    Rondeau form (ABACA with A being the ritornello)
  • English Oratorio

    English Oratorio
    Composed by Handel
    No lavish scenery
    Used Italian singers that performed in English
    Public was pleased by the new genre
  • Israel in Egypt

    Israel in Egypt
    Composed by Handel
  • Messiah

    Messiah
    Composed by Handel
    First performed in Dublin in 1742
    Genre wasEnglish Oratorio
    52 separate numbers
    Composed in 3 weeks but “self-borrowed” old arias and cantata numbers to create new choruses and pieces
    3 parts:
    I: Christmas Section
    II: Easter Section
    III: Redemption Section
    Secco recitative and an accompanied recitative:
    No. 14 “There were shepherds abiding…”
    No. 14b “And Lo! The angel of the Lord…”
    No. 15 “And the angel said unto them”
    No. 16 “And suddenly there was with the angel”
  • Judas Maccabaeus

    Judas Maccabaeus
    Composed by Handel
  • Contrapunctus 1 from The Art of Fugue

    Contrapunctus 1 from The Art of Fugue
    Composed by J.S. Bach who wrote this collection at the end of his life, and it was not published until 1751 (after his death in 1750)
  • Jephtha

    Jephtha
    Composed by Handel