• 476

    Fall of Rome

    Fall of Rome
    Start of medieval era
    There were slow changes in life, culture, and dissemination of knowledge
  • Period: 991 to 1033

    Guido d'Arezzo

    Credited with inventing the musical staff
    He suggested using a red line for F and a yellow line for C
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen

    Founded and was the abbess of the convent at Rupertsberg, Germany
    Famous for her prophetic powers and revelations
    Wrote liturgical dramas and religious poetry
    Was the first female composer in contemporary musicology to receive extensive scholarly research
    Began to compose liturgical poetry and music in the 1140s
    Collected and illuminated the manuscripts of her many works to use in the convent
    Style was more elaborate than the older Gregorian style
    Poet, composer, teacher, and author
  • 1299

    Development of the Compass

    Development of the Compass
    Made voyages of discovery possible
  • 1346

    Introduction of Gunpowder in Europe

    Introduction of Gunpowder in Europe
    Signaled the end of the ageof knighthood
  • Period: 1386 to 1466


    Italian artist
  • Period: 1390 to 1453

    John Dunstable

    Influenced musical style in Europe
    Used a lot of 3rds and 6ths in harmonies, which resulted in what we now think of as triadic music
    His works were found in Italian and German manuscripts
    About 50 of his compositions are extant and it's likely he composed more
    complete works were not published until 1953
    "Puisque M’Amour" was attributed to Dunstable in 2 separate sources and was a rondeau for 3 voices
    It's been difficult for musicologists to date his pieces
  • Period: 1397 to 1474

    Guillaume Dufay

    1st renaissance composer
  • Period: 1400 to 1495


    Art reflected in painting
    Involved a lot of technique for the artwork to look realistic
  • Period: 1420 to 1497

    Johannes Ockeghem

    Renaissance composer
    Respected and prolific
    Low bass
  • Period: 1435 to 1511

    Johannes Tinctoris

    Composer and music theorist who wrote about contemporary music
    He wrote the first dictionary of musical terms, "Diffinitorum musices" in 1475
  • Period: 1444 to 1510

    Sandro Botticelli

    Italian artist
    Painted "The Birth of Venus"
  • Period: 1450 to 1521

    Josquin des Prez

    Renaissance composer
    Most revered especially by Martin Luther
    Although from Northern France, he served in Italian courts
    Worked at Notre Dame as the provost
    Sang in the Sistine Chapel choir in Rome
    Music was so emotion-filled and popular (often others tried to plagiarize)
    Wrote over 100 motets, 17 masses, many French chansons, and Italian secular songs are extant
    His music might have been sung by soloists, although choirs were being used for polyphony in motets and masses
    Known for his chansons
  • Period: 1450 to 1517

    Heinrich Isaac

    Prolific renaissance composer from Germany
  • Period: 1452 to 1519

    Leonardo de Vinci

    Some notable works are "The Mona Lisa," “The Annunciation,” and "The Last Supper"
  • Period: 1466 to 1536


    Renaissance master
    Dutch scholar-philosopher
  • Period: 1466 to 1539

    Ottaviano Petrucci

    Important early music publisher
    Published 11 volumes of Frottola
  • Period: 1475 to 1564

    Michelangelo Buonarroti

    Italian artist
    Sculpted “Pieta”
  • 1480

    Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, virgo serena

    Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, virgo serena
    Music by Josquin des Prez who thought a lot about motives and imitation
    Means "Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you, gentle Virgin”
    Latin motet for 4 voices
    Imitative polyphony, homorhythmic, and polyphonic textures
    The opening motive was derived from the chant melody
    Had vocal polyphony a cappella, which began an era of choral polyphony that characterized the Renaissance style
  • Period: 1483 to 1546

    Martin Luther

    Renaissance master
    German religious reformer
    Augustinian monk
  • Period: 1483 to 1520


    Italian artist
    Painted “Madonna della Tenda”
  • Period: 1488 to 1576

    Tiziano Vecellio

    Italian artist
    Painted "The Three Ages of Man"
  • Period: 1490 to 1562

    Adrian Willaert

    Renaissance composer
    Father of text expression
  • Period: 1500 to 1539


    Renaissance music genre
    Secular music
    "pop" music of the early 16th century
    Italian, usually solo-4-voices, light-hearted, and homorhythmic
    For solo singers
    Poems in Italian
  • Period: 1505 to

    Thomas Tallis

    English composer who was very important
    Wrote a 40-voice part motet "Spem in alium"
  • Period: 1505 to 1568

    Jacques Arcadelt

    Italian Madrigal composer
  • Period: 1507 to 1568

    Jacques Arcadelt

    One of the earliest Italian madrigal composers
    Worked in Italian and French courts
    Composed over 250 madrigals, 125 French chansons, and sacred music
  • 1510

    Pange lingua Mass

    Pange lingua Mass
    Piece by Josquin Des Prez
    Kyrie and Gloria
  • Period: 1516 to 1565

    Cipriano de Rore

    Italian Madrigal composer
  • 1517

    Lutheran Liturgy Emerges

    Lutheran Liturgy Emerges
    Martin Luther began the Protestant movement known as the Reformation which caused the Catholic church to excommunicate him. However, Lutheranism grew in popularity in the Northern German cities and new music was written for these services, but the Southern German cities, France, and Italy continued their Catholic traditions
  • Period: 1521 to

    Philipp de Monte

    Renaissance composer who was most prolific
    Italian Madrigal composer
    Composed the most madrigals (1,073)
  • Period: 1525 to

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Most famous Renaissance composer
    Received most of his fame posthumously
    The church wanted everything homorhythmic, but Palestrina continued using polyphony, which showed that he could make any texture understood. He rose to the challenges of the Council of Trent and saved polyphony.
    Wrote over 104 masses
    Style of counterpoint is still used as a teaching tool
    Italian Madrigal composer
  • Period: 1528 to

    Paolo Veronese

    Italian artist
    Painted “The Allegory of Wisdom and Strength”
  • Period: 1530 to


    Renaissance music genre
    Secular music
    Italian Madrigal
    English Madrigal: use of nonsense syllables and was last to develop
  • Period: 1530 to

    Italian Madrigal

    More serious poetry and music
    Originated in Florence around 1530 as a form of aristocratic entertainment
    Used one voice on each part (5 solo voices became the norm around 1550:)
    Became the experimental genre for the Baroque style
    Aristocratic poetry
    Sometimes instruments would play a voice part
    Spread to England
    Instruments participated but were notated rarely
    First madrigals were homorhythmic and 4 solo voices, which was similar to a frottola
  • Period: 1532 to

    Orlando di Lasso

    Renaissance composer
    Important along with Josquin and Palestrina
    Italian Madrigal composer
  • Period: 1543 to

    William Byrd

    Renaissance composer
    Important RomanCatholic English composer who worked and lived in Protestant England
    Was harassed because of his faith but put up with it
    The talent he had provided protection from serious persecution
    Wrote several anthems (English and Protestant compositions)
    Wrote 3 extant masses and lots of Protestant music
    Composed very important keyboard music
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    Council of Trent

    Set new guidelines for music and musicians
  • Period: 1548 to

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Renaissance composer
    Carried on Palestrina’s style when he worked in Spain
  • Period: 1557 to

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Leading composer of instrumental ensemble music and polychoral works in the late Renaissance
    Was 1st to indicate the actual instruments that he wanted in the score
    Sometimes indicate dynamics
    His instrumental music was for ensembles
    Composed over 100 motets, (most were polychoral), and other instrumental works
  • Period: 1557 to

    Thomas Morley

    English Madrigal composer
  • 1562

    Pope Marcellus Mass

    Pope Marcellus Mass
    Met the religious goalscalled for in the reform
    Published in 1567
    Supposedly written to satisfy the Council of Trent
    Had 6 a cappella voices
    Polyphonic and homorhythmic
    Music by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
  • Period: 1564 to

    William Shakespeare

    English playwright
    Some notable works were "Romeo and Juliet," "Macbeth," "Hamlet," and "Taming of the Shrew"
  • Period: 1564 to


    Renaissance master
  • Period: 1567 to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Went from composing Baroque music to theRenaissance style
    Wrote 9 books of madrigals
    Composed several operas during the Baroque era
  • Period: 1570 to

    John Farmer

    English Madrigal composer and organist
    Known for clever word painting
    Was active in Dublin and London
  • Period: 1575 to

    Thomas Weelkes

    English Madrigal composer
  • Canzona septimi toni

    Canzona septimi toni
    Music by Giovanni Gabrieli from his large collection called Sacred Symphonies
    2 choirs of instruments
    -Each in 4 parts
    -8 musical lines interacting with each other in polyphony
    -Sometimes creating homorhythm
    “Cori spezzati” (split choirs): practice of breaking up a choir into more parts for more musical lines
  • Fair Phyllis

    Fair Phyllis
    Music by John Farmer
    Had 4 solo voices
    Used word painting