Bandmaster, best known for marches. Promoted American wind-band tradition, outgrowth of British military bands.
Italian composer and conductor, became the official composer of the Fascist regime in the 1930s.
American, popularized ragtime.
Amy Marcy Cheney Beach
American composer and pianist, very successful in Europe, wrote scholarly articles.
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Leader in English music, collector and editor of folksongs, hymns, teacher, and conductor.
Not interested in nationalism, master of melody, virtuosic pianist, toured the US.
Innovative and original American composer. Not completely atonal. Polytonal, polyrhythms, and polymeters. "Americana" style.
English, influenced by folksong and Hindu mysticism. Original composer and important teacher.
Manuel de Falla
Principal Spanish composer of the 20th century. Used Spanish popular folk music, international fame.
Hungarian composer and pianist, important ethnomusicologist, known for rhythmic music, incorporated his own native folk music into compositions.
Robert Nathaniel Dett
Canadian, pianist, studied with Boulanger. Helped found the National Association of Negro Musicians.
Versatile and interesting 20th century composer. Rhythmic style, harmonically interesting.
Hungarian, ethnomusicologist, music educator, created movable 'do' solfege system.
Italian futurist painter, composer, and builder of experimental musical instruments.
Important teacher of composers in 20th century, most prominent American composers of the first half of the century studied with her. Conductor, composer. Helped composers find their "voice."
First black female composer to have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra.
Precursor to jazz, developed from African-American piano style with syncopated rhythms.
Musical genre derived from African American performance traditions that used "blues notes" or bent pitches.
Russian composer, orchestral/piano/film music.
French composer, first woman to win the Prix de Rome (1913), sister of Nadia.
William Grant Still
First black American composer to have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble. First black American to conduct a major symphony orchestra.
John Cage's teacher, American innovator who was drawn to non-Western music. Coined the term "tone cluster."
Influential American composer, pianist, and conductor. Worked in Hollywood, successfully fused jazz and pop music.
American jazz composer, band-leader, an pianist. Unique big-band jazz, one of the first African American composers to cross races with his music.
Composer, teacher, critic, conductor, and sponsor of concerts. (First to have multi-faceted career) Mostly tonal music, studied with Nadia Boulanger.
Traits: vigorous, mixed meters, open intervals, solos, clean/transparent, folk songs.
African American jazz musician who revolutionized jazz. Singer, band leader, and trumpeter.
Versatile, most important Russian composer during his time.
American composer, influential teacher and composer for 50 years.
American composer and accomplished singer. Child prodigy and gifted melodist, continued a successful conservative tonality in the midst of 20th century musical experimentaitons.
Tides of Manaunaun
Use of tone clusters.
American composer and philosopher, most innovative composer of the 20th century. Changed definition of music, used indeterminacy, he was the center of avant-garde music in the mid-20th century.
Art of Noises
Creed/manifesto made of essays depicting the history and future of sound according to Russolo.
World War I
Leading female blues singer. Broke racial barriers by performing with white bands.
"Collaborated" with Duke Ellington for many years. Known for composing A Train.
American musical style influenced from West African music.
American conductor, composer, teacher, author, pianist. Influential American composer of the 20th century, brought classical music to the public via various media.
Famous French composers/musicians/performers; Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Tailleferre, Auric, Poulenc.
The Harlem Renaissance
Cultural capital of African American arts (literature, painting, and music). Included William Grant Still and Langston Hughes.
Types of American Music in the 19th Century
Imported Western art music
Sacred (vocal, old-fashioned)
Small amount of art music by American composers
University schools just starting
Style of composition that focused on musical elements other than pitch. Percussion ensembles were given a new status in concert music.
Highly improvisational style of New Orleans jazz to the "big band" era.
American composer and conductor. Considered one of the best film score composers in America.
Porgy and Bess
Written by Gershwin, intended to be American folk opera. First opera with an all black cast.
Peter and the Wolf
Orchestral piece, cultivated music in young children with a narrator.
World War II
The Unanswered Question
Orchestral work with no specific genre. Written in 1906 but not published until 1940. Contrasting timbres throughout the piece (strings/solo trumpet/wind "quartet")
New "cool" jazz with fast tempos, dissonant solos.
French concept, relied on natural sourced sounds and altered by different means.
Ballet, portrays a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly-built farmhouse. Made an orchestral suite drawn from the ballet; used to sell music to different markets.
A Black Pierrot
Art song from a song cycle echoing Schoenberg's "Pierrot Lunaire." Text by Langston Hughes, a song about rejection in love because of color. Chromatic harmony, blues influence.
"Chance music" was a new concept of composition that left one or more musical elements in performance up to chance.
Rock n Roll
Blend of musical styles from blues and honky-tonk to create a new genre.
Make Our Garden Grow from Candide
Operetta, revised by Bernstein in 1989. Based on Voltaire, chorus duet.
West Side Story
Musical theater (Romeo and Juliet saga).
American composer, conductor, and lecturer. Known for virtual choir project, large online, musical performances, and neo-tonal style.