Nadia boulanger 1925

Post 1900s Era (1930-2000) - Timeline 6

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    John Philip Sousa

    Bandmaster, best known for marches. Promoted American wind-band tradition, outgrowth of British military bands.
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    Pictro Mascagni

    Italian composer and conductor, became the official composer of the Fascist regime in the 1930s.
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    Scott Joplin

    American, popularized ragtime.
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    Amy Marcy Cheney Beach

    American composer and pianist, very successful in Europe, wrote scholarly articles.
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    Ralph Vaughan Williams

    Leader in English music, collector and editor of folksongs, hymns, teacher, and conductor.
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    Sergei Rachmaniov

    Not interested in nationalism, master of melody, virtuosic pianist, toured the US.
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    Charles Ives

    Innovative and original American composer. Not completely atonal. Polytonal, polyrhythms, and polymeters. "Americana" style.
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    Gustav Holst

    English, influenced by folksong and Hindu mysticism. Original composer and important teacher.
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    Manuel de Falla

    Principal Spanish composer of the 20th century. Used Spanish popular folk music, international fame.
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    Bela Bartok

    Hungarian composer and pianist, important ethnomusicologist, known for rhythmic music, incorporated his own native folk music into compositions.
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    Robert Nathaniel Dett

    Canadian, pianist, studied with Boulanger. Helped found the National Association of Negro Musicians.
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    Igor Stravinsky

    Versatile and interesting 20th century composer. Rhythmic style, harmonically interesting.
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    Zoltan Kodaly

    Hungarian, ethnomusicologist, music educator, created movable 'do' solfege system.
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    Luigi Russolo

    Italian futurist painter, composer, and builder of experimental musical instruments.
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    Nadia Boulanger

    Important teacher of composers in 20th century, most prominent American composers of the first half of the century studied with her. Conductor, composer. Helped composers find their "voice."
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    Florence Price

    First black female composer to have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra.
  • Ragtime

    Precursor to jazz, developed from African-American piano style with syncopated rhythms.
  • Blues

    Musical genre derived from African American performance traditions that used "blues notes" or bent pitches.
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    Sergei Prokofiev

    Russian composer, orchestral/piano/film music.
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    Lili Boulanger

    French composer, first woman to win the Prix de Rome (1913), sister of Nadia.
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    William Grant Still

    First black American composer to have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble. First black American to conduct a major symphony orchestra.
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    Henry Cowell

    John Cage's teacher, American innovator who was drawn to non-Western music. Coined the term "tone cluster."
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    George Gershwin

    Influential American composer, pianist, and conductor. Worked in Hollywood, successfully fused jazz and pop music.
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    Duke Ellington

    American jazz composer, band-leader, an pianist. Unique big-band jazz, one of the first African American composers to cross races with his music.
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    Aaron Copland

    Composer, teacher, critic, conductor, and sponsor of concerts. (First to have multi-faceted career) Mostly tonal music, studied with Nadia Boulanger. Traits: vigorous, mixed meters, open intervals, solos, clean/transparent, folk songs.
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    Louis Armstrong

    African American jazz musician who revolutionized jazz. Singer, band leader, and trumpeter.
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    Dimitri Shostakovich

    Versatile, most important Russian composer during his time.
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    Elliot Carter

    American composer, influential teacher and composer for 50 years.
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    Samuel Barber

    American composer and accomplished singer. Child prodigy and gifted melodist, continued a successful conservative tonality in the midst of 20th century musical experimentaitons.
  • Tides of Manaunaun

    Use of tone clusters.
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    John Cage

    American composer and philosopher, most innovative composer of the 20th century. Changed definition of music, used indeterminacy, he was the center of avant-garde music in the mid-20th century.
  • Art of Noises

    Creed/manifesto made of essays depicting the history and future of sound according to Russolo.
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    World War I

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    Billie Holiday

    Leading female blues singer. Broke racial barriers by performing with white bands.
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    Billy Strayhorn

    "Collaborated" with Duke Ellington for many years. Known for composing A Train.
  • Jazz

    American musical style influenced from West African music.
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    Leonard Bernstein

    American conductor, composer, teacher, author, pianist. Influential American composer of the 20th century, brought classical music to the public via various media.
  • Les Six

    Famous French composers/musicians/performers; Durey, Honegger, Milhaud, Tailleferre, Auric, Poulenc.
  • The Harlem Renaissance

    Cultural capital of African American arts (literature, painting, and music). Included William Grant Still and Langston Hughes.
  • Types of American Music in the 19th Century

    1. Imported Western art music
    2. Vernacular music
    3. Sacred (vocal, old-fashioned)
    4. Small amount of art music by American composers
    5. University schools just starting
  • Non-tonal music

    Style of composition that focused on musical elements other than pitch. Percussion ensembles were given a new status in concert music.
  • Swing Era

    Highly improvisational style of New Orleans jazz to the "big band" era.
  • John Williams

    American composer and conductor. Considered one of the best film score composers in America.
  • Porgy and Bess

    Written by Gershwin, intended to be American folk opera. First opera with an all black cast.
  • Peter and the Wolf

    Orchestral piece, cultivated music in young children with a narrator.
  • Billie's Blues

  • Period: to

    World War II

  • The Unanswered Question

    Orchestral work with no specific genre. Written in 1906 but not published until 1940. Contrasting timbres throughout the piece (strings/solo trumpet/wind "quartet")
  • Bebop

    New "cool" jazz with fast tempos, dissonant solos.
  • Musique concrete

    French concept, relied on natural sourced sounds and altered by different means.
  • Appalachian Spring

    Ballet, portrays a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly-built farmhouse. Made an orchestral suite drawn from the ballet; used to sell music to different markets.
  • A Black Pierrot

    Art song from a song cycle echoing Schoenberg's "Pierrot Lunaire." Text by Langston Hughes, a song about rejection in love because of color. Chromatic harmony, blues influence.
  • Aleatoric music

    "Chance music" was a new concept of composition that left one or more musical elements in performance up to chance.
  • Rock n Roll

    Blend of musical styles from blues and honky-tonk to create a new genre.
  • Make Our Garden Grow from Candide

    Operetta, revised by Bernstein in 1989. Based on Voltaire, chorus duet.
  • West Side Story

    Musical theater (Romeo and Juliet saga).
  • Eric Whitacre

    American composer, conductor, and lecturer. Known for virtual choir project, large online, musical performances, and neo-tonal style.