The Baroque Era - Alex Suarez

  • 1550

    Emilio de'Cavalieri

    Roman nobleman; one of the founders of opera; the first to publish a figured bass; also an organist; singing teacher, dancer, and choreographer
  • 1551

    Guilio Caccini

    One of the founders of opera; gave a description of the new singing style in his book of "songs" of 1602, Le nuove musiche; Italian composer; singer, teacher, and instrumentalist
  • 1557

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Italian composer and organist; noted for his use of instruments in his sacred music; nephew of Andrea
  • 1560

    Lodovico Grossi Viadana

    Wrote the earliest known example of liturgical monody (1607); was the first to compose and publish a continuo part for a collection of sacred vocal concerti (1602); wrote in the stile moderno
  • 1560

    Hieronymus Praetorius

    German organist and composer; (not related to Michael); used the Venetian polychoral style; wrote Latin and German sacred songs
  • 1561

    Jacopo Peri

    One of the founders of opera; claimed to be the first in 1597 with his Dafne; significant contribution to monody and the recitative style
  • 1561

    Jacopo Corsi

    Patron and composer; member of the Florentine Camerata; contributed to Peri's first opera Dafne of 1597; in 1600 he sponsored the premiere of Peri's Euridice and played harpsichord in the performance
  • 1562

    Ottavio Rinuccini

    Italian librettist and poet; important librettist that worked with Monteverdi, among others; first librettist for opera
  • 1562

    John Bull

    English composer and organist; virtuoso virginalist; organ builder
  • 1563

    John Dowland

    English, possibly Irish; lutenist and the leading composer of lute music; Catholic; served in the court of Denmark; late in life appointed in London as one of the King's lutenists; In 2006 Sting (pop star) recorded Dowland's music creating a revival of his songs
  • 1564

    Hans Leo Hassler

    North German Lutheran composer and organist; studied with A. Gabrieli; poly-choral style
  • 1564

    William Shakespeare

    English playwright and poet; he has been an important force in the field of music from his day to ours
  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    The most important composer of the early Baroque; one of the inventors of the new seconda pratica (second practice-or modern style)
  • 1567

    Thomas Campion

    English poet and composer; he experimented by imitating the Florentine monodists
  • 1568

    Adriano Banchieri

    Italian composer, theorist, organist; wrote under various pseudonyms
  • 1570

    Florentine Camerata

    Beginning in the 1570's a group of intellectuals that met to discuss the arts - members included Caccini, Peri, Girolamo Mei, Vincenzo Galilei
  • 1570

    Salamon Rossi

    Italian composer of Jewish decent; violinist; worked in Mantua; among the earliest composers to use trio sonata texture
  • 1571

    Michael Praetorius

    North-German composer and organist; helped to lay the foundations of German organ music; as a theorist noted for Syntagma musicum
  • 1580

    Agostino Agazzari

    Italian composer and organist; wrote an important treatise on thoroughbass in 1607-08 which served as the foundation for Michael Praetorius' treatise 7 years later
  • 1582

    Marco de Gagliano

    Italian composer; he was one of the important Italian musicians in the early Baroque; his music was acclaimed in his day
  • 1582

    Sigismondo d'India

    Italian composer and singer; besides Monteverdi, d'India was the most distinguished Italian composer of secular vocal works in the early Baroque
  • Orlando Gibbons

    English; composer of Anglican Church anthems; keyboardist; a leading composer in the 17th century England
  • Girolamo Frescobaldi

    First modern keyboard virtuoso and composer; he was the most influential keyboard composer of the early Baroque; he was the first European composer to focus on instrumental music
  • Giulio Strozzi

    Italian dramatist, librettist, and poet; father of Barbara Strozzi; his opera librettos were set to music from the 1620s on
  • Heinrich Schutz

    Most important German composer of the Middle Baroque; studied in Venice; reportedly composed the first German opera, which we lost
  • Alessandro Grandi

    North Italian composer; very important in his time; wrote church music in the new concertato style
  • Johann Hermann Schein

    German composer and poet; worked at the Leipzig Thomaskirche before Bach; was influenced by the Italian madrigal and monody when writing his Lutheran church music
  • Samuel Scheidt

    German composer and organist; he combined counterpoint with the newer Italian concerto style
  • Francesca Caccini

    Daughter of Guilio; the first composer to have an Italian opera staged outside of Italy; virtuoso singer and teacher
  • Tarquinio Merula

    Italian composer, violinist, and organist; among the first to compose motets with instrumental string accompaniment (1624); worked in Warsaw and Italy
  • Francesco Manelli

    Italian composer, singer, impresario, and poet; he helped establish the public operatic tradition in Venice with librettist Benedetto Ferarri
  • Heinrich Scheidremann

    German composer, teacher, and organist; a leading composer of organ music; noted for his chorale-based compositions
  • Luigi Rossi

    A leading composer of Roman Cantatas; singing teacher, lutenist, and keyboardist
  • New developments

    development of functional tonality (major/minor); Opera; Secular art music more important; modality to tonality
  • Basso Continuo

    provided baseline and chord progression for harmonic structure
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque

  • Jacques Champion de Chambonnieres

    French composer, harpsichordist, and dancer; one of the greatest composers of early Baroque French harpsichord music
  • Marco Marazzoli

    Italian composer, singer, and harpist; he was a leading composer in his day' he was one of the first to compose comic operas
  • Francesco Cavalli

    Italian composer, singer, teacher, and organist; he was the leading composer in Venice after Monteverdi; extraordinarily famous during his day
  • Benedetto Ferarri

    Italian composer, poet, librettist, and impresario; he established the tradition of public operatic performances in Venice with the help of Francesco Manelli
  • Giacomo Carissimi

    A leading composer of Roman cantatas and oratorios; teacher of Charpentier
  • Henri Du Mont

    French composer and keyboardist; experimented with a new genre, the dialog motet
  • Andreas Hammerschmidt

    German composer and organist; composed independent instrumental ensemble music (unusual for the time); extremely prolific and popular in his time
  • Johann Jakob Froberger

    German composer and keyboard virtuoso; developed the keyboard suite genre; assimilated French, Italian, and German styles in his works; although he was widely known into the 18th century, only 2 of his compositions were published during his lifetime
  • Johann Jakob Froberger

    German composer and keyboardist; pupil of Frescobaldi; used French, Italian and German styles in his keyboard music; court organist in Vienna; widely traveled and of great influence to Couperin and German keyboard composers into the late Baroque
  • Barbara Strozzi

    Virtuoso singer and most prolific composer of cantatas in the 17th century; adopted daughter of poet, Guilio Strozzi
  • Isabella Leonarda

    A nun who, at age 73, published several new Baroque instrumental genres (solo and trio sonatas)
  • Johann Heinrich Schmelzer

    The leading Austrian violinist and composer of instrumental music before Biber
  • Matthew Locke

    English composer of chamber and dramatic music; organist; he was prolific and influential in his day
  • Antonio Cesti

    Outstanding composer of operas and secular cantatas; famous as a singer; wrote with bel canto style in his arias
  • Giovanni Andrea Bontempi

    Italian composer, singer, author, historian, and architect; he wrote the first history of music in Italian (Historia musica, 1695)
  • Giovanni Legrenzi

    Italian composer and organist; influential in the middle Baroque; used many (up to 90) short arias in his operas
  • Johann Caspar Kerll

    German composer and organist; widely known and admired as a keyboardist; one of the first composers to create a thematic catalogue devoted to a single composer's work
  • Jean Henry D'Anglebert

    Important French composer of keyboard music; associated with Chambonnieres and Lully; his Pieces de clavecin represent French keyboard music in the mid-baroque; he includes a table of ornaments which Bach copied around 1710
  • Thomas Baltzar

    German violinist and composer; extremely popular violinist in England; one of the first to require scordatura
  • Jean-Baptiste Lully

    Establisher of French opera and ballet; dancer and violinist; Italian by birth, but claimed by France
  • First public opera house

    Venice opened the first public opera house in the world
  • Dieterich Buxtehude

    German organist and composer; most important organ composer before J.S. Bach; respected by Bach
  • Alessandro Stradella

    Italian composer; prolific and important in his day
  • Johann Christoph Bach

    German composer and organist; most important Bach family member before J.S. Bach
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier

    Composer of French opera; pupil of Carissimi; equal to Lully and extremely prolific
  • Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber

    Austrian composer and violinist; although often credited with using scordatura first (in his Rosary Sonatas (ca.1674) it was more likely an innovation of Thomas Baltzar a decade earlier
  • John Blow

    English composer of odes; teacher of Purcell; organist
  • New Developments

    Counter point resulted in fugues, chaconnes, and passacaglias; instrumental music genres such as concerto, sonata, and trio; Secular music tastes lead over sacred music; "the melodies sounded more like melodies"; tonal system further developed; string instrument dominated
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque

  • Arcangelo Corelli

    Most important Italian composer of sonatas and concertos; also the most influential violinist of the Baroque
  • Georg Muffat

    German composer important for his instrumental works; helped introduce French and Italian styles to Germany
  • Johann Pachelbel

    German composer and organist; a leading composer of his time
  • Agostino Steffani

    Italian composer and diplomat; his chamber ducts are an important stage of Italian vocal music before Handel
  • Marin Marais

    French composer and viol player; studied with Lully; court musician to Louis XIV in Versailles
  • Michel-Richard de Lalande

    French composer and keyboardist; Louis XIV's favorite composer; the leading composer of the French grand motet at the French court
  • Giuseppe Torelli

    Contributed the most to the development of the concerto around 1700; wrote for trumpet and strings; virtuoso violinist
  • Jean de Sainte-Colombe

    French viol player and composer
  • Henry Purcell

    Most important English composer in the 17th century
  • Alessandro Scarlatti

    Important Italian composer; teacher in Naples; his death ends Baroque opera; teacher of many galant composers to come
  • Johann Kuhnau

    German composer, keyboardist, theorist, scholar, writer, and lawyer; he left us some early examples of interesting program music
  • Johann Joseph Fux

    Austrian composer and theorist; used Palestrina's style as a teaching tool; his counterpoint treatise, Gradus ad Parnassum from 1725, was used by most musicians in the 18th century; court composer in Vienna, and served 3 emperors; his music does not regularly reflect the older contrapuntal style
  • Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

    She was called "the marvel of our century;" educated in Louis XIV's court; lived in Paris; renowned harpsichordist
  • Attilio Ariosti

    Composer in Vienna and diplomat in Italy; teacher and monk; traveled widely
  • Francios Couperin

    French composer, keyboardist; one of the most important French composers
  • Antonio Caldara

    Italian composer; he was one of the most prolific composers in his day; he paid particular attention to his orchestration
  • Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni

    Italian composer who wrote operas and instrumental music; he was very popular in his day; Bach knew his works
  • Antoine Forqueray

    French composer and viola da gamba virtuoso; court musician for Louis XIV
  • Reinhard Keiser

    German composer; he was the central figure in German opera in the Late Baroque
  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Italian composer; he laid the foundations for late Baroque instrumental music; teacher; pioneer of orchestral music; but, virtually forgotten by his contemporaries at his death
  • Georg Philipp Telemann

    The most prolific German composer of his day; more poplar than J.S. Bach during the Baroque; contributed significantly to concert life in Germany
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau

    French composer and theorist; known first as a theorist
  • Francesco Durante

    Galant Italian composer and teacher; a leading composer of church music; Neapolitan
  • John Gay

    An English playwright and poet who innovated a new genre; the Ballad opera, when he wrote The Beggar's Opera in 1728 as a satire on politics and partly on Handel's opera seria.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Considered the Baroque master; wrote no operas; master of counterpoint; he became an icon for future generations and is still one of the most revered composers toda
  • Georg Freidrich Handel

    German musician; lived in England, inventor of the English oratorio; Beethoven respected him above all others
  • Roland (-Pierre) Marais

    French composer and viol player; son of Marin Marais; played for Louis XIV
  • Domenico Scarlatti

    Son of Alessandro; keyboard composer and virtuoso; served Portuguese and Spanish royal families; progressive style and personally aware of it
  • Nicola Porpora

    Italian composer and singing teacher; taught famous castrati in the 18th century
  • Francesco Geminiani

    Italian composer, violinist, teacher, and theorist; he was one of the greatest violin virtuosos of his day
  • Giuseppe Tartini

    Galant Italian composer, violinist, teacher, and theorist, extremely important as a violin teacher and as an assimilator of the galanst and empfindsam styles
  • Leonardo Vinci

    Galant Italian composer; leader (for a time) of the new style of Italian opera
  • Johann Joachim Quantz

    German composer; flutist and flute teacher for Fredrick the Great in Berlin
  • Francesco Antonio Vallotti

    Italian composer and theorist; he was important in the field of church music
  • New Developments

    Serious opera, "heroic opera" opera seria, was the primary form of public (music) entertainment; Public concerts; seventh chords accepted; fortspinning melodies (long continuous); modern diatonic system was firmly established; new demand for dynamics; virtuosos became to emerge and make successful careers
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque

  • Johann Gottlieb Graun

    German composer and a creator of instrumental music of the classic era; brother of Carl Heinrich
  • Giovanni Battista Martini (Padre)

    Italian teacher, composer, and writer; he was the leading teacher in the 18th century; his surviving letters are important to music history
  • Giovanni Battista Pergolesi

    Galant Neapolitan composer; he died young and his achievements were romanticized after this death; his intermezzo, La serva padrona sparked the war of the bouffons in Paris in 1752
  • Symphony

    Giovanni Battista invented the symphony in Milan; A new orchestral virtuosity emerged in Mannheim in the 1740's with Johann Stamitz's orchestra of phenomenal musicians; Changed history of orchestral timbre to one of strength