Id 10016159

Theories that Have Shaped Reading

  • Reference

    Reference Tracey, D., & Morrow, L. (2012). lenses on Reading: An Introduction to Theories and Models (2nd ed). New York, New York: Guilford Press. Pictures taken from Google Images
  • Literacy Theories

    Literacy Theories
    In the early 1900's teachers avoided reading instruction, but did follow the Unfoldment Theory. The Unfoldment Theory was based on the teachings of Pestalozzi and Froebel, which "advocated cultivating feeling and passion through the development of a natural unfolding of personal interest" (p.24).
  • Connectionism Theory

    Connectionism Theory
    Edward Thorndike introduces Connectionism Theory. Connectionism concentrated on the effects of varying stimuli that occurs after a behavior instead of before a behavior is completed.
  • Behaviorism is Launched

    Behaviorism is Launched
    In response to the theory of Mentalism John B. Watson released a publication called "Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It." The release of this publication launched the behaviorist movement, which became the dominant perspective on education and psychology for 50 years.
  • Classical Conditioning

    Classical Conditioning
    Pavlov creates Classical Conditioning Theory as a result of research conducted through the study of his dogs and their response to stimuli.
  • Literacy Theory: Maturation

    Literacy Theory: Maturation
    Maturation Theory created by Morphett and Washburne encouraged the delay of reading instruction until the child could successfully complete reading task. The suggested developmental age was 61/2 years old. (p.94)
  • Thorndike's Human Learning

    Thorndike's Human Learning
    Thorndike releases the "Human Learning" publication giving more guidance on his theory of Connectionism with indepth information about The Law of Readiness, The Law of Identical Elements, and The Law of Exercise.
  • Schema Theory

    Schema Theory
    The Schema Theory was introduced by Frederic Bartlett in 1932. Schema Theory "strives to explain how knowledge is created and used by learners. Additionally, it focuses on how schema, or knowledge structures are individualized, pliant, and expandable (p.62).
  • Operant Conditioning Theory

    Operant Conditioning Theory
    Burrhus Frederic Skinner introduces Operant Conditioning Theory or "programmed learning." This theory assist educators with breaking down instruction into small successive steps to maximize student success.
  • Inquiry Learning

    Inquiry Learning
    John Dewey (1859-1952) developed the Inquiry Learning Theory, which is still used as a key element in the education system (p.59).
    Inquiry Learning "was based on the Unfoldment Theory" and emphasizes the "growth of the individual, the importance of the environment, and the role of the teacher in students' learning" (p.59).
  • Direct Instruction

    Direct Instruction
    Siegfried Engelman introduces Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction focused on specific concepts - phonics, vocabulary, comprehension skills, and information to help students strengthen these skills.
  • Literacy Theory: Emergent

    Literacy Theory: Emergent
    Stage Model theorist focused on the word recognition dimension of reading; however, to understand reading development beyond word recognition theorist and researchers created Emergent Literacy Theory. This theory explains how children's development in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing are all interrelated (p.99).
  • Psycholinguistic & Whole Learning Theory

    Psycholinguistic & Whole Learning Theory
    The core of the psycholinguistic theory introduced by Goodman in 1967, and Smith in 1971 concentrated on "the assumption that reading is primarily a language process" (p.68).
  • Literacy Theory: Cognitive Development

    Literacy Theory: Cognitive Development
    Piaget classified as a constructivist and developmental theorist created The Theory of Cognitive Development describing how the quality of children's thinking changes over time (p.91).
  • Cognitive Processing: Gough's Model

    Cognitive Processing: Gough's Model
    Gough's information processing perpective describes how the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge from the mind occurs. This perspective was viewed as a "bottom up" theory, meaning the the sequence of processing information begins with new or incoming data to higher levels of encoding.
  • Metacognition Theory

    Metacognition Theory
    Metacognitive Theory allowed constructivist to understand reading comprehension in learners, and how to use strategies in the classroom to assist with developing reading abilities.
  • Interactive & Interactive Compensatory

    Interactive & Interactive Compensatory
    Rumelhart introduced a non-linear model of reading with the Interactive and Interactibe Compensatory Model. Despite agreeing that reading is initiated by visual text input, contrast to "bottom-up" models he showed that when reading "there are many times in which higher level processing assist in lower level functions" (p.160).
  • Transactional Reader Response

    Transactional Reader Response
    Transactional Reader Response introduced by Louise Rosenblatt provided an understanding of reading experiences being unique to the reader.This theory added to the theory of Schema, which explained that knowledge structures were individualized. The theory also explained how the reading experience is affected by two different responses - Efferent: fact oriented, Aesthetic: personal and emotionally based responses (p.66).
  • Social Constructivism

    Social Constructivism
    Lev Vygotsky created Social Constructivism, which surrounded the belief that "children learn as a result of their social interactions with others (p.127). Additionally, he believed that children learn about language from the people they are around and interact with.
  • Literacy Theory: Holdaway

    Literacy Theory: Holdaway
    Holdaway's Theory of Literacy Development is viewed as a natural development occurance, which begins in the home when children first see their parents read and have stories read to them (p.95).
  • Socio-Cultural Theory

    Socio-Cultural Theory
    Socio-Cultural Theory emphasizes the roles of social, cultural, and historical factors in the human experience (Tracey & Morrow, 2012). When applied to reading theorist understand that literacy is developed when educators understand the social, cultural, and historical contexts of a child's growth. When this is understood educators are properly equipped to build on existing knowledge in a social environment (i.e.,classroom, group time, silent reading).
  • Lebarge & Samuel

    Lebarge & Samuel
    Lebarge and Samuel's Automatic Information Processing Model introduced detailed stages of the importance of memory when processing information. This model was the most frequently used reading model because it explained the five stages of how memory and comprehension in beginner and fluent readers is developed.
  • Phonological Core Variable

    Phonological Core Variable
    Stanovich's Phonologocal Core Variable Model shed light on phonological capabilities, which is "an individuals awareness and ability to hear and manipulate sounds within a word" (p.165). This model is significant because it allowed theorist and educators to understand, and pinpoint learning disabilities, namely dyslexia.
  • Literacy Theory: Family

    Literacy Theory: Family
    The theory of Family Literacy was initially proposed by Denny Taylor in 1983. Her initial research, which focused on a child's reading development beginning in the home, and how it is used in their community; encouraged other researchers of like minds to expand the definition of Family Literacy Theory and help educators understand the relatonship between a childs' home life and their academic success.
  • Literacy Theory: Stage Model Theorist

    Literacy Theory: Stage Model Theorist
    Stage Model theorist have ranged from Chall (1983), Frith (1985), Ehri (1991), and Griffith (1992). Despite the difference in reading stages names among the theorist the common belief among them is connected to understanding how reading develops in stages. The Stage Model Theory explains that as children's reading skills develop, they increase the number and types of strategies they can use during their reading experiences (p.97). Stages: Pre, Partial, Full, and Consolidated Alphabetic Stages
  • Sociolinguistics

    Rooted in anthropology, linguistics, and literary analysist Sociolinguistic theorist explain how a childs oral foundation, usually beginning in the home, allows learners to become successful readers. According to Tracey and Morrow (2012) "oral knowledge provides children with an intuitive understanding of the structure of languge" (p.119).
  • Sociolinguistic Theory

    Sociolinguistic Theory
    Rooted in anthropology, linguistics, and literary analysist Sociolinguistic theorist explain how a childs oral foundation, usually beginning in the home, allows learners to become successful readers. According to Tracey and Morrow (2012) "oral knowledge provides children with an intuitive understanding of the structure of languge" (p.119).
  • Dual-Route Cascaded Model

    Dual-Route Cascaded Model
    Colthert introduced the Dual-Route Cascaded Model after publishing a reasearch article that contrasted the Parallel Distributed Processing Model, showing the primary difference is in the way a word is identified, conceptualized, and handled during the reading process.
  • Third Space Theory

    Third Space Theory
    Third Space Theory developed by Soja in 1996 explains that literacy thrives between the space of an individuals personal knowledge through influence with family, friends, and home - and work, school, and religious environments. Learning is enhanced when educators build on the foundation of a students first space (home) and second space (infuences outside the home) - third space (school).
  • Double Deficit Hypothesis

    Double Deficit Hypothesis
    In 1999 Wolf and Bowers introduced the Double Deficit Hypothesis Model. The previous research that shed light on understanding learning disabilities allowed them to pinpoint three categories of what causes reading disabilities -1. Phonological Deficit 2. Naming Speed Deficit 3. Phonological & Naming Speed Deficits.
  • Engagement Theory

    Engagement Theory
    Guthrie used the Engagement Theory to "articulate the difference between engaged, and disengaged readers" (p.75).
  • Social Learning Theory

    Social Learning Theory
    Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory, which defines social learning through observing the actions of others, including their failures and success. This form of learning observation allows children, beginning in the home, to gain a desire to read because books are being read by parents - solo, or to them.
  • Critical Literacy Theory

    Critical Literacy Theory
    When attempting to understand the political aspects of education, theorist/educators will employ the Critical Literacy Theory created by Freire in 1970. This theory highlights how education will give power to, or take power away from children and why "educators must investigate the ways in which literacy education has been used to "solidify the social hierarchy, empower elites and ensure that people lower on the hierarchy accept what is not in their best interest (p. 134).