The Timeline of Management

By ychen4
  • Scientific Management

    Scientific Management
    Frederick Winslow Taylor was regarded as "The Father of Scientific Management". He believed that scientific management was the fundamental purpose of seeking the highest productivity, and the highest working efficiency was the basis of employers and employees to achieve common prosperity. In order to achieve the working efficiency, we needed to use scientific and standardized management methods instead of experience management. Chung, C. H. (2013). The Road Not Taken: Putting "Management" Back t
  • Gantt chart

    Gantt chart
    Henry Gantt created the Gantt chart in 1917. In this chart, through activities lists and time scales he demonstrated the order of specific activites and duration by using graphical representation.(n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Case Teaching Method

    Case Teaching Method
    The Case Teaching Method was created by the Harvard Business School. It is a case based teaching. The teacher gives the students a case with no true or false. It encouraged students to think, to talk. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Decentralized Bureaucracy

    Decentralized Bureaucracy
    Alfred P. Sloan became 8th president of General Motors in 1923. Between1921-1922, he created a decentralized bureaucracy organization pattern. General Motors Company was divided into 21 Divisions based on their products, and four vice presidents were in charged. The company set the important policies and other specific business as entirely responsible for each division. The sloan legacy. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Hawthorne Experiments

    Hawthorne Experiments
    A series of experiments showed that the employees were not totally motivated by wages, so they needed to take emotional connection into concern.
    Pitcher, B. L. (1981). The Hawthorne Experiments: Statistical Evidence for a Learning Hypothesis. Social Forces, 60(1), 133-149.
  • Human relation movement

    Human relation movement
    George Elton Mayo and his workmates argued that group dynamics and respect from the managemant affect a group's performance. Moreover, he believed that People's behavior was not only purely from the motivation of the pursuit of money, but also came from social aspects and psychological needs. Those were the pursuit of friendship between people, security, belonging and respect. Therefore,
    Human relation movement [Web log message]. Retrieved from
  • Management by Wandering Around

    Management by Wandering Around
    David Packard and Bill Hewlett form Hewlett-Packard, and they encouraged the managers to go to the factory to work and communicate with workers. They expected that managers could estabilsh a good and healthy relationship with workers
    Management By Walking Around MBWA (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Action Learning

    Action Learning
    The Action Learning Method was invented by a British management thinker Reg Vince in 1940, and it applied to the industry of coal in England and Wales. Reg Vince was regarded as "the father of action learning". Action learning meant that it was through practice that people found out what problem people had, and tried to solve it. MALONE, P. S. (2013). THE untapped power OF ACTION LEARNING. T+D, 67(8), 54-59.
  • Hierarchy of needs

    Hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's hierarchy of needs was from American Jewish humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow’s book "theory of human motivation" in 1943. He believed that human needs would be the same as the ladder from low to high levels divided into five, namely: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.TAORMINA, R. J., & GAO, J. H. (2013). Maslow and the Motivation Hierarchy: Measuring Satisfaction of the Needs. American Journal Of Psychology, 126(2), 155-17
  • Sociotechnical Systems Theory

    Sociotechnical Systems Theory
    E.L.T ristis and his workmates are the creators of the Social Technology Theory. They believed that organization was a social system and a technical system, and in order to increase the productivity, companies needed to coordinate the social system and the technology system. When there was a conflict between them, usually the managers would make some changes in the technology system to adapt to the social system.Walker, G. H., Stanton, N. A., Salmon, P. M., & Jenkins, D. P. (2008)
  • Deming's 14 Points

    Deming's 14 Points
    W. Edwards. Deming was a famous expert of Quality Management in the world. His main points "(Deming's 14 Points)" became the foundation of the theory of total quality management (TQM). He thought that companies needed to produced the highest quality products as possible because money came from the repeated customers. Markert, C. D., & Simon, R. C. (1999). Deming's 14 Points for Quality. Journal Of Management In Engineering, 15(1), 7.
  • The Program Evaluation Review Technique

    The Program Evaluation Review Technique
    The Program Evaluation Review Technique(PERT) was a project as a system with network diagrams or tables or matrices to represent the sequence of the specific work in order to analyze the tasks involved in completing a project, especially the time needed to complete each task and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project.
    Rouse, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • X-Y Theory

    X-Y Theory
    American management expert Douglas MC Gregor proposed the X-Y theory in 1957. X theory: Most people were born lazy, and they did everything possibe to avoid work; most people did not have ambition. Theory Y was different from X, and it believed that the average person did not inherently dislike work, and most people were willing to work responsibly,They had high level of imagination and creative talent. Haji Mohamed, R., & Mohamad Nor, C. (2013). The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory M
  • Work Breakdown Structure

    Work Breakdown Structure
    This appraoch was introduced by the United States Department of Defense in 1962. It divided the activity to serveral parts to make sure every part knew what their responsibity was. WBS was an important basis of the scheduling plan, demand of resources, cost budget, risk management plan and purchasing plan.
    Chris, H. (n.d.). Work breakdown structures: The forgotten best practice. Retrieved from
  • International Project Management Association

    International Project Management Association
    IPMA (International Project Management Association) was founded in 1965 and headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland as an International Project Management Organization. The members of IPMA were from project management associations in various countries , so far there were 34 members. Its mission was to develop the project management and to make it more professional.Ipma: International project management association. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Critical Path Method

    Critical Path Method
    Critical Path Method was invented by Du Pont in 1965. It was a method of project planning management based on mathematical culculation. CPE divided the project into several parts with fixed duration, then used logical relation to connect them in order to calculate the duraton of project.
    Kielmas, M. (n.d.). History of the Critical Path Method. Retrieved from
  • Project Management Institute

    Project Management Institute
    The Project Management Institute was launched in 1969. The PMI had been committed to support career and professional development, set up professional standards, conduct research, and provide valuable information and resources. In order to promote the vocational and professional development, PMI created a platform for providing opportunity for managers to participate.De Jaeger, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • The Peter Principle

    The Peter Principle
    In 1969, a management expert Laurence J. Peterpublished "The Peter Principle", in which he proposed that we could not assume someone to get a high-level position because someone did very well in a certain level. Priomoting someone to the higher position which they cannot do was not a prize. This was wasting human resouces and it was the company' loss.
    F. John Reh. (n.d.). The peter principle how to beat the peter principle. Retrieved from
  • The Servant as Leader

    The Servant as Leader
    In 1970, R. K. Greenleaf published a book that was called "The Servant as Leader". He created the term of servant leadership, and it meant that it was a kind of unselfish leadership philosophy that exists in our society. The leaders were willing to be the servants to provide service to his workers. Servant leadership encouraged coporation, trust and listening Tidball, D. (2012). Leaders as Servants: a Resolution of the Tension. Evangelical Review Of Theology, 36(1), 31-47.
  • Growth Share Matrix

    Growth Share Matrix
    Bruce Henderson was from Boston Consulting Group, and he founded the growth Share Matrix in 1970. He believed that if companies wanted to succeed, they must have different growth rates and the market share of product portfolio. The structure of the portfolio depended on the balance of the cash flow. Growth share matrix. (2009, 09 11). Retrieved from
  • Agency Theory

    Agency Theory
    Agency Theory was introduced by Michalel Jensen and William Mickling. Agency Theory was about companies composed by series of contacts. It included the contractual relations beween shareholders and capital operators and customers and conpany. The core of Agency theory was how clients designed a good contract to motivate agents when they had conflicts.Agency theory. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Theory of Constraints

    Theory of Constraints
    Theory of Constraints (TOC) was Introduced by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his Novel "The Goal". It was a management philosophy and priciple of how to improve performance and how to implement these improvments in the company. It could help companies to find the constraints in the process of acheving goals. It also pointed out how to improve and to remove constraints in order to achieve goals effectively.Biography of dr. eliyahu m. goldratt. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Scrum Management

    Scrum Management
    Scrum is a style of management. It was introduced by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland. Scrum is a lightweight software development method.
    Scrum (software development). (n.d.). Retrieved from
  • Project Management Body Of Knowledge

    Project Management Body Of Knowledge
    The book of Project Management Body Of Knowledge was first pubilish in 1996. This was a guilde book that introduced and supported certain aspects of the management. It was a method of organzing, managing and controlling the project.
    Kennelly, P. J. (2013). Relating GIS&T and Project Management Bodies of Knowledge to Projects Perceived as Successes. Journal Of The Urban & Regional Information Systems Association, 25(1), 5-17.
  • Business Process Reengineering

    Business Process Reengineering
    The theory of Business Process Management was from the book "Reengineering the Corporation", which was written by Michael Hammer and James Champy. They believed that the theory of business process management made an organization's workflow more effective and efficient because it showed how organizations can identify,develop,and manage processes between systems or involving human interaction.Revisiting reengineering. (2000, 06 01). Retrieved from