Title slide

Histroy and the Changes of Management

By melder1
  • Scientific Management Theory

    Scientific Management Theory
    Frederick W. Taylor is most associated with the theory, which was a systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency. The four principles are:
    1) Study the way workers perform their tasks.
    2) Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures.
    3) Select workers that possess skills matching needs of task.
    4) Establish fair level of performance.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Job Specialization

    Job Specialization
    This is the process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time. This is one way to maximize efficiency.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Andrew Carnegie

    Andrew Carnegie
    Andrew Carnegie improved the railroad industry in the states as a result creating the cheapest steal, paying lowest wage rate and maximizing his profits. Carnegie's "hardnosed management" consisted of lengthening already long work days from 10 hours to 12 while also having a 6 day work week. Carnegie crushed any attempt for his employees to unionize which pushed a need for Administrative Management towards the end of the 19th Century. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Administrative Management

    Administrative Management
    Administrative Management was the study of how to create an organizational structure (system of task and authority relationship that controls how employees use resources to achieve organizational goals) and control system that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Bureaucracy

    During Germany's industrial revolution, Max Weber created bureaucracy, a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. the 5 principle are:
    1)Manager's authority derives from position he holds
    2)People occupy positions based on their performance
    3)Tasks should be clearly specified
    4)Authority can be exercised effectively so employees know who to report to
    5)Managers create well-defined system of rules and norms.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Henri Fayol's 14 Principles

    Henri Fayol's 14 Principles
    Fayol, CEO of Comambault Mining developed these 14 principles of management:
    1) Division of Labor
    2) Authority and Responsibility
    3) Unity of Command
    4) Line of Authority
    5) Centralization
    6) Unity of Direction
    7) Equity
    8) Order
    9) Initiative
    10) Discipline
    11) Remuneration of Personnel
    12) Stability of Tenure of Personnel
    13) Subordination of individual interests to the common interest
    14) Esprit de Corps
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Behavioral Management Theory

    Behavioral Management Theory
    Behavioral management theory is the study of how managers should behave to motivate their employees and to encourage them to perform at the highest levels possible while being committed to the achievement of organizational goals.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Mary Parker Follet

    Mary Parker Follet
    Mary Parker Follet advocated for "cross-functioning" which was where members of different departments worked together in cross-departmental teams to accomplish projects. This is increasingly being used today.
    "Authority should go with knowledge....whether it is up the line or down"-Mary Parker Follet
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Fordism

    In 1913, Henry Ford changed the production of automobiles and shaped the way the future car would be made. He introduced an assembly line that increased efficiency. This assembly line was the best way to organize and control the process. Each worker performed one task along the production line. This was coined as "Fordism." (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Hawthorne Effect

    Hawthorne Effect
    The Hawthorne studies took place from 1924-1932. This was an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting (lighting or illumination) affected working fatigue and performance. All the attention researcher were giving the workers increased productivity. This turned into the Hawthorne Effect (manager's behavior or leadership approach can affect workers' level of performance). This brought on the Human Relations Movement. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Human Relations Movement

    Human Relations Movement
    The human relations movement advocated the idea that supervisors should receive behavioral training to manage subordinates in ways that elicit their cooperation and increase their productivity. This fed off of the Hawthorne effect. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Theory X

    Theory X
    After World War II, Douglas McGregor developed two sets of assumptions about employees. Theory X stated that the average employee is lazy and dislikes to work, trying to do as little work as possible. To ensure that employees work hard, McGregor believed managers should closely supervise employees and that managers should create strict work rules and implement a well-defined system of rewards and punishments to control employees. Theory X is the contrary of Theory Y. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Theory Y

    Theory Y
    Following WW 2, Douglas McGregor proposed two assumptions about the average employee. Theory Y stated that employees are not inherently lazy. Given the chance, employees will do what is good for the organization. Theory Y allows employees to work in the organization's interest, and managers must create a work setting that provides opportunities for workers to exercise initiative and self-direction. Contrary to Theory X, managers should decentralize authority to employees. (Jones & George)

    POSDCORB is a popular acronym associated with management. It was used first by Luther Gulick. It stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordination, reporting and budgeting. This extended and built on what Fayol had already built for management. A major difference of Gulick’s model was eliminating the number or workers a supervisor would be responsible for.
    (Vashistha, 2013)
  • Operations Management

    Operations Management
    Part of Management science theory, operations management gives managers a set of techniques they can use to analyze any aspect of an organization's production system to increase efficiency.

    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Quantative Management

    Quantative Management
    Part of Management Science Theory, Quantative Management dealt with mathematical techniques, such as linear and nonlinear programming, modeling, simulation, queuing theory and chaos theory, to help managers make decisions. An example would be how much inventory to hold at different times of the year and where to locate a new factory and how best to invest an organization's financial capital.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Total Quality Management

    Total Quality Management
    Also part of the management science theory, Total Quality Management (TQM) focuses on analyzing an organization's input, conversion, and output activities to increase product quality. Managers focus on making sure all products produced are of the highest quality before sold.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Management Information Systems

    Management Information Systems
    The final part of management science theory is Management Information Systems (MISs). These give managers information about events happening inside of their organization as well as what is occurring externally. This helps managers of all levels make decisions because they are being better informed. (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Lewin's change management model

    Lewin's change management model
    Kurt Lewin, a psychologist, proposed a change management model in the 1950’s that noted three stages of change.
    1) Unfreeze – Most people will resist change. To overcome this, an “unfreezing” must be initiated to move forward through motivation.
    2) Transition – Once change has occurred, the company enters a long transition period. Good leadership and reassurance is necessary for this to run smoothly.
    3) Refreeze – Accept the new change and implement it.
  • Organizational Envirnment

    Organizational Envirnment
    The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization's boundaries, but affect a managers ability to acquire and utilize resources. These include raw materials and skilled people that an organization requires to produce goods and services as well as the support groups, including customers.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Lean Manufacturing

    Lean Manufacturing
    Japanese producer Ohno Taiichi visited Ford's assembly line and found ways to improve it. Lean manufacturing stated if workers have input and can participate in decision making process, their knowledge can be used to increase efficiency.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    The contingency theory is the idea that the organizational structures and control systems managers choose depend on characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates. The characteristics, according to this theory, affect an organizations ability to obtain resources, and maximize the likelihood of gaining access to resources.
    (Jones & George, 2014)
  • McKinsey 7-S Model

    McKinsey 7-S Model
    Robert Waterman and Tom Peters designed a model that is used to monitor changes of an organization. For an organization to perform well, these seven elements need to be aligned. The seven independents include 3 hard elements and 4 soft elements.
    Hard Elements:
    Soft Elements:
    -Shared Values
  • John Kotter's 8 Step Change Model

    John Kotter's 8 Step Change Model
    Kotter believed these were the best 8 steps in order to create change.
    Step 1: Create Urgency
    Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition
    Step 3: Create a Vision for Change
    Step 4: Communicate the Vision
    Step 5: Remove Obstacles
    Step 6: Create Short-Term Wins
    Step 7: Build on the Change
    Step 8: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture
  • Change Management VS. Change Leadership

    Change Management VS. Change Leadership
    Change management is a set of processes and a set of tools and mechanisms that are designed to make sure changes do not get out of control and problems do not occur through the changes. Basically, making a big change but keeping it under control. Change leadership is making the change go faster, smarter and more efficiently. Change management is with smaller changes, change leadership is for larger changes.
    (Kotter, 2011)