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History, Theory, and Practice of Management

  • The Scientific Management Theory - Frederick W. Taylor

    The Scientific Management Theory - Frederick W. Taylor
    The Scientific Management Theory by Frederick Taylor focused on increasing economic efficiency with a focus on labor productivity. The theory can be described as "the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency". Frederick believed that if the amount of effort and time a worker spends on producing an output is reduced, the process of production will be more efficient.
  • Administrative Management Theory - Henri Fayol

    Administrative Management Theory - Henri Fayol
    Henri Fayol helped develop organizational administration with contributions leading to the Administrative Management Theory. Administrative management is described as "the study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness". One of the main principles included organizational structure which is a system of authority and task relationships that control how employees utilize resources to obtain the goals of the organization.
  • Psychology and Industrial Efficiency Management - Hugo Munsterberg

    Psychology and Industrial Efficiency Management - Hugo Munsterberg
    Hugo Munsterberg created the Psychology and Industrial Efficiency Management theories which were actually related to Taylor's scientific management. Hugo was an industrial psychologist who studied human efficiency with the goal of improving productivity. His management theory had three main parts and included the best possible man, the best possible work, and the best possible effect.
  • Behavioral Management Theory - Mary Parker Follett

    Behavioral Management Theory - Mary Parker Follett
    Mary developed the Behavioral Management Theory and it was created from focusing on the human side of an organization which she thought Fayol was ignoring. One of her arguments was that the workers know the most about their jobs and that they should be included in the work development process. She thought that the work process should be controlled by the workers instead of managers and that the managers should serve roles such as coaches and facilitators instead of monitors and supervisors.
  • Fayol's 14 Principles Of Management

    Fayol's 14 Principles Of Management
    Henri Fayol established 14 principles that he believed were important to increase the efficiency of the management process. These principles include the division of labor, authority and responsibility, unity of command, line of authority, centralization, unity of direction, equity, order, initiative, discipline, remuneration of personnel, stability of tenure of personnel, subordination of individual interests to the common interest, and esprit de corps.
  • Gantt Chart Management

    Gantt Chart Management
    Henry Gantt worked closely with Frederick Taylor at the Midvale Steel Company. He developed Gantt Charts using horizontal bars to plan and control the work performed. Along with Taylor he focused on the scientific study of tasks, working conditions, and worker cooperation. He also focused on the the connection between the involvement of management and financial interests.
  • Universalism Management

    Universalism Management
    Henri Fayol developed a management style that focused on the processes that are involved in management including Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling. These processes were used in the beginning stages of when Fayol developed the concept and eventually led to Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. These four principles were more commonly used which are still practiced by successful managers in the present era.
  • Motion Study Management - Frank Gilbreth

    Motion Study Management - Frank Gilbreth
    Frank Gilbreth established motion study management which was similar to Frederick Taylor's time study. Frank actually used motion cameras and clocks to create micro motion study management. He came up with a list of 17 motions that he called "therbligs" which helped to analyze any worker movement in the work environment in order to improve efficiency.
  • Twelve Principles of Efficiency Management Thought - Harrington Emerson

    Twelve Principles of Efficiency Management Thought - Harrington Emerson
    Harrington Emerson established 12 principles of management thought that was a landmark in management theory. Emerson believed organization was one of the greatest problems that led to inefficiency. The structure beliefs that he had of having a designated manager in a division and then certain subordinates underneath that manager was a founding guideline for the development of the principles. These principles also contributed towards cost accounting and setting standards for workers.
  • The Hawthorne Effect - Elton Mayo

    The Hawthorne Effect - Elton Mayo
    Elton Mayo and his associates established the Hawthorn Effect at a electric plant in Cicero, Illinois. The effect and concept that they developed includes an increase in the productivity of a worker from the psychological stimulus of being singled out to feel important. The major finding of the study included, regardless of the manipulation that the employee experienced the production of that employee improved
  • Managing by Committee - Alfred Sloan

    Managing by Committee - Alfred Sloan
    At the time when Alfred Sloan developed the Managing by Committee philosophy he had just became the president of General Motors. His philosophy helped GM become the leading truck and car manufacturer in the world. Instead of him controlling and managing his entire division he had divisional leaders for the operations of the company. These leaders were responsible for meeting profit and revenue expectations, and they were also accountable for price controls and budgets.
  • Systems Theory

    Systems Theory
    The Systems Theory takes an approach towards management from looking at the organization in a broader perspective which contributes to interpreting patterns and events in the workplace. The basis of why this theory was developed includes that an organization could have an excellent central administration and managers to go along with it in numerous departments, but in some cases where this theory needs to be applied is when they do not synchronize at all.
  • Management Science Theory

    Management Science Theory
    The Management Science Theory helps managers make the greatest use out of organizational resources from focusing on thorough quantitative techniques to produce goods and services. There are many branches of management science that deal with certain concerns. These concerns include Quantitative Management, Operations Management, Total Quality Management and Management Information Systems.
  • Sociotechnical Systems Theory

    Sociotechnical Systems Theory
    Eric Trist led a group of researchers to develop the sociotechnical systems theory which considers both the technical and social aspects when a job is designed. The theory has four main components and has been described as "a 180 degree departure from Frederick Taylors Scientific Management". The four main components include the social subsystem, technical subsystem, environmental subsystem and the organizational design.
  • Joseph Juran's Pareto Principle

    Joseph Juran's Pareto Principle
    Joseph Juran's management theory named the Pareto Principle developed from his experiences and included that 80 percent of all quality defects are caused by factors within management's control. He believed an area with an organization that is causing the quality problems should be analyzed in order to develop a solution. The work of Juran and Deming helped managers change the way that they conduct business for the better.
  • Quality is Job One - Edward Deming

    Quality is Job One - Edward Deming
    Edward Deming preached quality management and his basic idea included "Profit comes from repeat customers, so every person should be focused on making the highest quality product possible". The first lecture that he gave on quality management was to the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. The Japanese acted on his belief of quality management quickly but it took until the 1980s for the U.S. to catch onto the concept.
  • Hygiene and Motivational Factor Management - Fredrick Herzberg

    Hygiene and Motivational Factor Management - Fredrick Herzberg
    Fredrick Herzberg developed a list of factors that he believed should be present in the work place before managers can motivate and stimulate workers. These factors include security, opportunities for growth and also good relationships with co-workers. The development of Motivational Factor Management stemmed from Frederick believing that these factors are the basis for motivating employees to give their best performance.
  • Theory X and Theory Y - Douglas McGregor

    Theory X and Theory Y - Douglas McGregor
    This theory was established by Douglas McGregor and its principles helped design and influence the implementation of personnel policies and practices. He based the theory on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in that he grouped the hierarchy into lower ordered needs (Theory X) and higher ordered needs (Theory Y).
  • Objective Management - Peter Drucker

    Objective Management - Peter Drucker
    The practice of this type of management was developed mainly by Peter Drucker. It was based on the concept that a decentralization organization environment provided a setting for achievement goals for workers, while also assessing them provided an efficient management practice.
  • Management Model

    Management Model
    The Management Model was developed by Jane Mouton and Robert Blake, the principles of the model conceptualizes management styles and relations. The model is based on a grid with two axis. The vertical axis is "concern for people" and the horizontal axis is "concern for task". The two dimensions that are used describes managerial behavior in a simplistic manner which is a fundamental of the model.
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    The Contingency Theory takes an approach towards management that is unlike the other theories or policies discussed from my viewpoint. The "contingency theory asserts that when managers make a decision, they must take into account all aspects of the current situation and act on those aspects that are key to the situation at hand". It is a theory towards management that handles contingent factors in the current situation in order to have the desired future outcome.
  • One Minute Management - Kenneth Blanchard

    One Minute Management - Kenneth Blanchard
    This practice of management was established by Kenneth Blanchard and it included very clear and specific goal settings for subordinates. This allowed the subordinates "sufficient autonomy to execute their task and report only the failures, thereby saving the precious time of the manager"
  • Total Quality Management

    Total Quality Management
    Total Quality Management was developed by a group including Joseph Juran and Edwards Deming which helped improve quality standards in management. When Total Quality Management was developed it was a revolution that helped improve standards across numerous aspects of business. It was quickly referred to as a universal term when doing business in different industries.
  • Learning Organization - Peter Senge

    Learning Organization - Peter Senge
    Peter Senge established disciplines for a learning organization and they include Personal Mastery, Mental Models, Shared Vision, Team Learning and System Thinking. The learning organization which he developed the disciplines includes the belief that an organization has a tremendous amount of potential that is undeveloped in an organization. Furthermore, when the members of an organization follow these disciplines that potential can be released when the members develop their human capacities.
  • At Your Service - Robert Greenleaf

    At Your Service - Robert Greenleaf
    Robert Greenleaf was a former AT&T manager who died before his philosophy "servant leadership" really took off such as the decade following his death. He stated that the primary role of a leader isn't to just pursue a higher goal, but instead to act as a servant towards his employees. Some of the benefits reaped by this model is employees who get more work done and a leader who is modest and develops an increasing production oriented work environment.