History

History of Management Timeline

By lknabe
  • Start of Scientific Method

    Start of Scientific Method
    Frederick W. Taylor was the father of the Scientific Method for management. His system consisted of 4 principle's of scientific management based on "experiements and observations as a manufacturing manager" (Jones, 2013, p. 40). He did this by studying the most efficient way to perform a task by observing a variety of workers, then increased specialization, and then encouraged workers to perform at "high levels of efficiency (p.41)".
  • The Gilbreth's

    The Gilbreth's
    Frank and Lillian Gilbreth analyzed work movements of employess because they wanted to maximize efficiency of labor, which led to saving time and effort for organizations (Jones, 2013, p. 42). They did this by filming workers and deciding which actions the workers were doing were efficient or not. They also analyzed the effects of fatigue and poor work performance. They took different factors like lighting and heating into consideration when doing research (42).
  • Max Weber

    Max Weber
    Max Weber developed the principle of bureaucracy while assisting the German's into becoming the world's power. He established five principles for his Administrative Management Theory (Jones, 2013, p. 45). In his last principle, he specified that Standard Operating Procedures should be created in order to employees to do their job better and smooter (46).
  • Henri Fayol

    Henri Fayol
    Henri Fayol is the creator of Fayol's 14 Principles of Management. He created these principal's while working as the CEO of Comambault Mining. His philosophy was to increase the efficiency of the management process (Jones, 2013, p. 47). Today, we still use Fayol's principles for the foundation of management practices.
  • Mary Parker Follett

    Mary Parker Follett
    Mary Follett was known as the mother of management thought. She argued that since workers did their jobs everyday, they should have a say as to how their jobs are completed, not just from managers. Managers should allow workers to have input in the job analysis process since the workers are the ones physically doing the job (Jones, 2013, p. 51). She also proposed that with power comes knowledge and the only way an organization can move closer toward its goals is to have knowledge (51).
  • Planning

    Planning
    Harrington Emerson (engineer) along with Louis Blandeis (attorney) and Henry Gantt, wanted a new proposed a new management philosophy for the rail road. They brought together a group of engineers to choose the most suitable management practices for the rail road. They wanted to prove that this new management philosophy could not only reduce rates, but reduce costs and increase wages (Smiddy, 1954, p. 10).
  • The Scientific Method Put to Work

    The Scientific Method Put to Work
    Taylor's four principles of Scientific Management was nationally known and finally practiced in 1910 (Jones, 2014, p. 40). This was because Taylor thought that workers should benefit from better performance, so workers starting gaining better wages and therefore increased efficiency.
  • Interstate Commerce Commission

    Interstate Commerce Commission
    Emercon, Blandeis, and Gantt proposed their new philosophy to the Interstate Commerce Commission. They proved that the rail road could reduce rates, while reducing costs and increasing wages and this gave strength to the management movement. It eventually was given the name "Scientific Management" (Smiddy, 1954, p. 10).
  • Management Movement

    Management Movement
    In 1912, a conference of 300 businessmen, engineers, politicians, etc. collected to discuss possible courses of action. The outcome from this conference is considered to mark the start of public concern in America of Scientific Management (Smiddy, 1954, p. 10).
  • Efficiency Society

    One of the most important societies formed becuase of the Management Movement, was the Effiency Society, It is one of the most important group because it had such diverse occupations involved. From business managers to theorists and educators to publicists, this society had them all. Their mission was to "determine standards of achievement...efficiency does not demand strenuous...it merely demands equivalence..."(Smiddy, 1954, p. 12).
  • Fordism

    Fordism
    Henry Ford's company was experiencing increasingly high amounts of worker turnover rates. In order to fix this problem, he decreased the work day to eight hours and doubled the wage. He was coined "Fordism" for the new dramatic approach to management (Jones, 2014, p. 41).
  • Formation of American Management Society

    Formation of American Management Society
    In 1917, was the formation of the Society for the Advancement of Management, which is now the present day American Management Association. They were devoted to problems of training in industry (Smiddy, 1954, p. 14).
  • Formation of CIOS

    Formation of CIOS
    By1926, the formation of CIOS, International Commitee for Scientific Management was complete. The CIOS acts on behalf of multiple organizations and their goals were to sustain international amity economically and politically. The Gold Medal of CIOS is widely recognized as a symbol of the highest achievement in the management field (Smiddy, 1954, p. 29).
  • Open System

    Open System
    Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn (pictured), and James Thompson founded the open system that looked at the influential views of how an organization is affected by its external environment (Jones, 2013, p. 56). The open system took resources from the external environment and converted them into products that the external could buy back from them.
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    The Contingency Theory was founded by Tom Burns, G.M. Stalker, Paul Lawrencer, and Jay Lorsch. Their belief was that an organization structure is dependent on the external environment's characteristics (Jones, 2013, p. 57). The main philosophy they had was that "there is no one best way to organize" because the external environment was going to control the way an organization was formed anyway (p. 58).
  • Emergence of Public Management

    Emergence of Public Management
    The first appearance of Public Management was in the 1980's. It was an alternative to Administrative Management practices. It posed many arguments among critics saything that it was about "self-promotion, rule-breaking, risk taking, and it conflicted with democratic theory." Other claim that it's the individuals who conduct these practices, not the Public Management as a whole. However, Public Management has been known for rule-breaking and poses a threat (Larry, 1998, p. 197).
  • Managerialism

    Christopher Pollitt, in 1990, researched the effects of managerialism on American and British services. He believed there are five principles to managerialism, which "consist of beliefs, values, and ideas about the state of the world and how it should be made (Larry, 1998, p. 196). Managerialism is like an updated version of the works of Taylor; it is apparent in liberation management and market driven management (Larry, 1998, p. 196).
  • Liberation Management

    Liberation Management
    Liberation Management, a form of Public Management, was formed by Thomas Peters in 1992. Liberation Management "is guided by the idea that public managers are highly skilled and committed to individuals who already know how to manage." The theory behind Liberation Management is that managers should be allowed freedom to express their skills, but they can't do this with government regulation. Therefore, it was proposed to deregulate and decentralize management processes (Larry, 1998, p. 195).
  • Culture and Management

    Culture and Management
    A study done by Marchese Marc in 2001, showed that culture influenced management in an organization. For example, a culture that was individualistic orientated was better fit with a management process that "encouraged employees to take inititative to improve their skills" (Marc, 2001, p. 131). Therefore, management should be aware of the type of culture their organizations falls into.
  • Arising Questions

    Arising Questions
    In Australian education, questions about management have been arising such as: "Can management be taught or do management educators simply teach those who wish to become managers?" A study has shown that Australian managers obtain their management training and education on-the-job, not necessarily from college. This raises some controvery as to if people are born managers or if people are taught to be managers (Holian, 2004, p. 3).
  • Criticizing Taylor's Early Work

    In April of 2013 Kai Huang, Jane Tung,Sheng Lo, and Mei-Ju Chou analyzed Taylor's early work and applied it to today's societies. Although, Taylor had great ideas for the time being, it seems as though, with today's standards, that his work has been out dated. For one example, the authors explain that in order for companies to be more efficient, managers should be training the employees, not the employer. This will increase effiency, especially for manufacturing companies (Kai-Ping, 2013,p. 80).