The History of Management

  • Scientific Management Theory

    Scientific Management Theory
    Frederick W.Taylor creates the techniques of Scientific Managment-the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency" (Jones 39). Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (2014). Contemporary Management (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  • Fordism

    Henry Ford made monumental changes to his practices to combat the sky-high turnover on his essembly lines in his car manufacturing plant. He reduced work hours and raised wages. The term Fordism was coined as he was recognized internationally for his work (Jones 41). Jones 2014 Jones, 2014
  • Fayol's Principles of Management

    Fayol's Principles of Management
    While CEO of Comambault Mining, Henri Fayol introduces his 14 principles of management, which he "believed essential to increase the efficiency of the management process" (Jones 47). Jones, 2014
  • Theory of Bureaucracy

    Theory of Bureaucracy
    Max Weber develops the Theory of Bureaucracy. The idea behind the theory is to ensure that efficiency is maintained through a formal system of organization based on five principles (Jones 45). Jones, 2014
  • The Work of Mary Parker Follett

    The Work of Mary Parker Follett
    Mary Parker Follett was an early management thinker who advocated, "Authority should go with knowledge...whether it is up the line or down" (Jones 51). Jones 2014
  • The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations

    The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations
    During the 1920's to early 1930's several studies were conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company on how to improve characteristics of the workplace. The results suggested that workers' attitudes toward their managers affect the level of workers' performance. Brannigan, A., & Swerman, W. (2001). THE REAL "HAWTHORNE EFFECT". Society, 38(2), 55-60.
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    Theory X and Theory Y
    After World War II, Douglas McGregor developed two sets of assumptons about the behavior of workers. Theory X states that workers are lazy and dislike work. On the other hand, Theory Y states that workers are not inherently lazy and given the chance are productive and enjoy their work (Jones 53). Jones 2014
    Jones, 2014
  • Management Science Theory

    Management Science Theory
    Management Science Theory is an approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources (Jones 55). Jones 2014
  • The Open-Systems View

    Developed in the 1960s by Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn, and James Thompson, the Open-Systems View viewed an organization as an open system. An open system is "a system that takes in resources from its external environment and converts them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by customers" (Jones 56). Jones 2014
    Jones, 2014
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    The Contingency Theory was created by Tom Burns, G.M. Stalker, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Lorsch. It's main idea was "that there is no one best way to organize." Jones, 2014
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal Pay Act
    Introduced in 1963, the Equal Pay Act prohibits managers from paying men and women differently if they perform the same work. Jones, 2014
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    In 1964, management had to obide by the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act which "prohibits discrimination in employment decisions on the basis of race, religion, sex, color, or national origin; covers a wide range of employment decisions, including hiring, firing, pay, promotion, and working conditions" (Jones 137). Jones 2014
    Jones 2014
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    Another discrimination act management is ordered to follow starting in 1967 is the Age Discrimination in Employment Act which prohibits discrimination against workers over the age of 40 and restricts mandatory retirement. Jones 2014
  • Hofstede's Model of National Culture

    Hofstede's Model of National Culture
    Geert Hofstede developed the Model of National Culture during the 1970's. The model looks at five dimensions along which national cultures can be placed. Jones, 2014
  • Juran's Quality Trilogy

    Juran's Quality Trilogy
    During the 1970s, Joseph Juran develops his Quality Trilogy, which emphasizes Quality Planning, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement. Godfrey, A., & Kenett, R. S. (2007). Joseph M. Juran, a perspective on past contributions and future impact. Quality & Reliability Engineering International, 23(6), 653-663. doi:10.1002/qre.861
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act

    Pregnancy Discrimination Act
    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 prohibits managers from discriminating against women in employment decisions on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical decisions. Jones, 2014
  • The Five Forces Model

    The Five Forces Model
    The Five Forces Model is a well-known model that helps managers focus on the five most important competitive forces or potential threats, in the external environment and is a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development formed by Michael Porter in 1979. Jones 2014 Jones 2014
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    Put forth in 1990, managers were prohibited from discriminating against disabled individuals in employment decisions and required that employers make accomodations for disabled workers to enable them to perform their jobs. Jones 2014
  • Senge's Principles

    Senge's Principles
    Peter Senge was a learning theorist who identified five principles for creating a learning organization. Jones, 2014
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    In addition to the the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Act of 1991 allows for the awarding of punitive and compensatory damages in cases of intentional discrimination. Jones, 2014
  • Family and Medical Leave Act

    Family and Medical Leave Act
    In 1993, the Family and Medical Leave Act required managers to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons, including paternity and illness of a family member. Jones 2014
  • Globalization

    During the 1990s, a growing number of companies around the world began to move towards globalization. This meant managers had to recognize and adjust to different cultures and practices. Jones, 2014
  • Social Responsibility

    Social Responsibility
    During the 2000s, managers began to focus on being more socially responsible. The advantage to doing so was to build a good reputation. According to Contemporary Management, "the rewards for a good company reputation are increased business and improved ability to obtain resources from stakeholders" (Jones 126). Jones 2014
    Jones, 2014
  • SWOT Analysis

    SWOT Analysis
    SWOT Analysis becomes an important tool for managers in the 2000s as the business environment becomes more and more competitive. SWOT Analysis allows mangers to find what they're good at and what needs improvement. Jones, 2014
  • Sarbanes Oxley Act

    Sarbanes Oxley Act
    The Sarbanes Oxley Act passed by U.S. Congress in 2002 to protect investors from the possibility of fraudulent accounting activities by corporations. Fanto, J. (2008). A Social Defense of Sarbanes-Oxley. New York Law School Law Review, 52(4), 517-532.