Laboratory training and T-groupsTime line 1940-1949:
The concept “Laboratory training and T-groups”
Researchers: Kenneth Benne, Leland Bradford, Ronald Lippitt, and Kurt Lewin
T-groups: learners gain experience from role play in the group.
Feedback from participants
Behavioral theories applied to explore group process
Goal: offer people options for their behavior in groups.
The T-group = team building.
Quality CirclesQuality circles: small groups of individuals with similar interests making suggestions for improvement to management. Started in Japan in 1950-1960’s.
Action Research and Survey FeedbackConcept; “Action research and survey feedback”
Researhers: Lewin, Likert, Man
Two components of action research: addressing questions of larger significance, making results known to other researchers and practitioners Survey feedback (SF) is a specialized form of action research. Survey feedback was developed by Likert and Mann. SF deals with the problem of how the organization could use the data from the survey to bring improvement in management & performance.
Management practices 1Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors
Job satisfaction, not the opposite of job dissatisfaction.
Workers dissatisfied by bad environment but made satisfied by instrinsics, what they do.
Management practices 2MacGregor's Theory X & Theory Y
Theory X : Dislike working,
Avoid responsibility and need to be directed, controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed. Theory Y : Take responsibility, motivated to fulfill the goals they are given, Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction, Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.
Management practices 3Blake and Mouton's Mangerial Grid
Management Practices 4Likert's Four Systems of Managment
System 1: Exploitative authorative: top down decision making. Managers use fear and threat. No TW
System 2: Benevolent authorative:top down decision making.Occasional rewards.Still fear and threats. some TW
System 3: Consultative: motivation by rewards, involvement in decision making but not in majors. TW common
System 4: Participative group:T/D,B/U, Horizantal Decision making,TW everywhere, personal/org goals.
Quality and Employee InvolvementQuality occurred primarily in manufacturing and industrial environments. This was in part due to the international competition that was occurring. Quality impacted how profitable the corporation be and how competitive they could be. Looking for a management style to address quality was necessary. Quality control was an important aspect of production.
Marvin Weisbord's Six Box Model“Radar screen” shows the interrelationship between six of the organizations parts: Purpose, structure, rewards, relationships, helpful mechanisms, leadership
Single Loop and Double Loop Learning - Argyris & Schon
Change Management, Strategic Change, and ReengineeringCurrently practiced, systems theory, large scale and whole organization interventions
Part of transformational change
Change is at the center of an organization
Ability to adopt change was the difference between successful companies and those that were not seeing profits.
Focus on the organizations mission, vision and goals
Organizational CultureCulture work in mergers and acquisitions
Group Dynamics-Diversity Workshops
Interpersonal Skills-Conflict Negotiation
Systems Theory and Organizational Change Model-Learning Organizations
Theory ZWilliam Ouchi -Theory Z involved workers make the company more successful. Employee involvement practices. Based on Japanese Managment styles.
"In Search of Excellence" Peters & WatermanTom Peters and Richard Waterman - Examined cultural values of succesful businesses.
"Corporate Culture" Deal and KennedyDeal and Kennedy - Can increase profits of a company by changing the culture values.
Nadler and Tusham Congruence ModelWhen parts of the system change, the “fit” might be impacted.
Six SigmaDeveloped by Motorola
Projects that are undertaken to measeure and improve oranizations processes.
Statistical representation of 3.4 "defect" for every million opportunites
"The Fifth Discipline" Peter SengeAruges that organizations have a learning disablity.
Learning can occur more quickly if:
Building Shared Vision
Model of Orginzational Performance and ChangeBurke-Litwan (1992) proposed a causal model that would note the variables that would be affected by change, taking into account both transactional and transformational change
Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change
"How the Way We Talk Can Chage the Way We Work"Keegan and Lahey - Move From the language of:
1. Complaint to the language of commitment
2, Blame to the language of responsibility
3. New Year's resoultions to language of competing comittments
4. Big assumptions that hold us to language of assumptions that we hold
5. Prizes and praising to the language of ongoing regard
6. Rules and policies to the language of public agreement
7. Constructive criticism to the language of deconstructive criticisim
Complex Adaptive SystemsOrganization ever-changning based on emerging patterns
Organizations and individuals respond differentley depending on circumstances
Understanding that small change can have drastic impact
Conversational Tool for Change ManagersManagers log conversations
Identify change conversations
Can Identify change conversations using the most
Change conversations if they are not working
ReferencesAnderson, D.L. (2010) Organization Development: the
Process of Leading Organizational Change. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ford, J., & Ford, L., (2008). Conversation profiles: A tool for
altering the conversational patterns of change
mananagers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science,
(44) 445-467. Lippitt, R. (1949). Training in community relations: A research
exploration toward new group skills. New York:Harper&Bros.