Kurt lewin1

Organizational Development History

By EDD885
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    First-Generation OD

  • Laboratory training and T-groups

    Laboratory training and T-groups
    Time line 1940-1949:
    The concept “Laboratory training and T-groups”
    Researchers: Kenneth Benne, Leland Bradford, Ronald Lippitt, and Kurt Lewin
    T-groups: learners gain experience from role play in the group.
    Feedback from participants
    Behavioral theories applied to explore group process
    Goal: offer people options for their behavior in groups.
    The T-group = team building.
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    Quality Circles

    Quality circles: small groups of individuals with similar interests making suggestions for improvement to management. Started in Japan in 1950-1960’s.
  • Action Research and Survey Feedback

    Action Research and Survey Feedback
    Concept; “Action research and survey feedback”
    Researhers: Lewin, Likert, Man
    Two components of action research: addressing questions of larger significance, making results known to other researchers and practitioners Survey feedback (SF) is a specialized form of action research. Survey feedback was developed by Likert and Mann. SF deals with the problem of how the organization could use the data from the survey to bring improvement in management & performance.
  • Management practices 1

    Management practices 1
    Herzberg's Hygiene and Motivational Factors
    Job satisfaction, not the opposite of job dissatisfaction.
    Workers dissatisfied by bad environment but made satisfied by instrinsics, what they do.
  • Management practices 2

    Management practices 2
    MacGregor's Theory X & Theory Y
    Theory X : Dislike working,
    Avoid responsibility and need to be directed, controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed. Theory Y : Take responsibility, motivated to fulfill the goals they are given, Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction, Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.
  • Management practices 3

    Management practices 3
    Blake and Mouton's Mangerial Grid
  • Management Practices 4

    Management Practices 4
    Likert's Four Systems of Managment
    System 1: Exploitative authorative: top down decision making. Managers use fear and threat. No TW
    System 2: Benevolent authorative:top down decision making.Occasional rewards.Still fear and threats. some TW
    System 3: Consultative: motivation by rewards, involvement in decision making but not in majors. TW common
    System 4: Participative group:T/D,B/U, Horizantal Decision making,TW everywhere, personal/org goals.
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    Quality and Employee Involvement

    Quality occurred primarily in manufacturing and industrial environments. This was in part due to the international competition that was occurring. Quality impacted how profitable the corporation be and how competitive they could be. Looking for a management style to address quality was necessary. Quality control was an important aspect of production.
  • Marvin Weisbord's Six Box Model

    Marvin Weisbord's Six Box Model
    “Radar screen” shows the interrelationship between six of the organizations parts: Purpose, structure, rewards, relationships, helpful mechanisms, leadership
  • Single Loop and Double Loop Learning - Argyris & Schon

    Single Loop and Double Loop Learning - Argyris & Schon
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    Second-Generation OD

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    Change Management, Strategic Change, and Reengineering

    Currently practiced, systems theory, large scale and whole organization interventions
    Part of transformational change
    Change is at the center of an organization
    Ability to adopt change was the difference between successful companies and those that were not seeing profits.
    Focus on the organizations mission, vision and goals
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    Organizational Culture

    Culture work in mergers and acquisitions
    Survey-Climate Surveys
    Group Dynamics-Diversity Workshops
    Interpersonal Skills-Conflict Negotiation
    Systems Theory and Organizational Change Model-Learning Organizations
  • Theory Z

    Theory Z
    William Ouchi -Theory Z involved workers make the company more successful. Employee involvement practices. Based on Japanese Managment styles.
  • "In Search of Excellence" Peters & Waterman

    "In Search of Excellence" Peters & Waterman
    Tom Peters and Richard Waterman - Examined cultural values of succesful businesses.
  • "Corporate Culture" Deal and Kennedy

    "Corporate Culture" Deal and Kennedy
    Deal and Kennedy - Can increase profits of a company by changing the culture values.
  • Nadler and Tusham Congruence Model

    Nadler and Tusham Congruence Model
    When parts of the system change, the “fit” might be impacted.
  • Six Sigma

    Six Sigma
    Developed by Motorola
    Projects that are undertaken to measeure and improve oranizations processes.
    Statistical representation of 3.4 "defect" for every million opportunites
  • "The Fifth Discipline" Peter Senge

    "The Fifth Discipline" Peter Senge
    Aruges that organizations have a learning disablity.
    Learning can occur more quickly if:
    Systems Thinking
    Personal Mastery
    Mental Models
    Building Shared Vision
    Team Learning
  • Model of Orginzational Performance and Change

    Model of Orginzational Performance and Change
    Burke-Litwan (1992) proposed a causal model that would note the variables that would be affected by change, taking into account both transactional and transformational change
  • Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change

    Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change
  • "How the Way We Talk Can Chage the Way We Work"

    "How the Way We Talk Can Chage the Way We Work"
    Keegan and Lahey - Move From the language of:
    1. Complaint to the language of commitment
    2, Blame to the language of responsibility
    3. New Year's resoultions to language of competing comittments
    4. Big assumptions that hold us to language of assumptions that we hold
    5. Prizes and praising to the language of ongoing regard
    6. Rules and policies to the language of public agreement
    7. Constructive criticism to the language of deconstructive criticisim
  • Complex Adaptive Systems

    Complex Adaptive Systems
    Organization ever-changning based on emerging patterns
    Organizations and individuals respond differentley depending on circumstances
    Understanding that small change can have drastic impact
  • Team Development

    Team Development
    Wheelan
  • Conversational Tool for Change Managers

    Conversational Tool for Change Managers
    Managers log conversations
    Identify change conversations
    Can Identify change conversations using the most
    Change conversations if they are not working
  • References

    Anderson, D.L. (2010) Organization Development: the
    Process of Leading Organizational Change. Thousand

    Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ford, J., & Ford, L., (2008). Conversation profiles: A tool for

    altering the conversational patterns of change

    mananagers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science,
    (44) 445-467. Lippitt, R. (1949). Training in community relations: A research
    exploration toward new group skills. New York:Harper&Bros.