A Simple History of Business Management

  • Small Batch Production

    Before 1900! Groups of skilled workers who worked on a single product together, sometimes producing a small number of units per day. The small batch production soon faded as Henry Ford would revolutionize the manufacturing industry. (Jones, G., & George, J. (2014). Conteporary management . (eight ed., p. 45). New York, NY: McGrawHill)
  • Scientific Method

    Scientific Method
    Newly theorized thinking that involves improving the interactions between people and tasks to better desing any working processes and increase efficiency. Frederick Taylor is given the honor as the founder of the Scientific Method. Taylor believed that employee specialization would improve efficiency. (Jones, George 2014)
  • Mass Production Manufacturing

    Mass Production Manufacturing
    Henry Ford opens the Highland Park Ford plant. This plant utilized the conveyor belt to move the production process along from station to station. Workers did repetitive tasks in order to efficiently produce Ford's Model T. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Fayol's 14 Management Principles

    Fayol's 14 Management Principles
    Henri Fayol developed his 14 principles, which are still used today to some extent. Fayol created the foundation for the majority of present day managament practices to be built on. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Fordism Reigns

    Fordism Reigns
    In repsonse to extremely high turnover rates in Ford's plants, Henry Ford reduced the work day and increased his basic wage to $5.00 per day. He instantly became an international figure and the term Fordism was created because of him. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Bureaucracy Theory

    Max Weber developed the 5 principles of bureaucracy in order to increase organizational effeiciency and effectiveness. Weber felt the need to do so to help the German industrial revolution. (Jones, G., & George, J. (2014). Conteporary management . (eight ed., p. 45). New York, NY: McGrawHill)
  • Period: to

    Hawthorne Studies

    Study done to see how certain conditions affected the workers in a manufacturing atmosphere. Improve job efficiency and the tools workers used was a goal of the Studies. Result was the attitude towards management affected an employee's level of productivity.
  • Stock Market Crashes

    The crash of the stock market which led to the Great Depression left millions jobless and had companies figuring out how to sttay afloat. Managers had to slash costs dramatically and find imaginitive ways to produce a small profit or the business was dead.
  • Lean Maunfacturing

    Lean Maunfacturing
    In the 1960's a Japanese car manufacturer toured plants in the U.S. This company, Toyata, studied the methods that the Big 3 employed and used the results to become much more effiecient. By increasing employee input, increase quality, and decrease assembly line product time. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    Theory X and Theory Y
    Two way approach to maanagement theory and practices. Douglas McGregor introduced the management world with this theory. In a simple phrase "X" is the controlling and domination that a manager should have over the employee. "Y" manager must create an environment to let the employee feel empowered. (Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor 1960).
  • Contingency Theory

    Milestone which organizational structures that are chosen because of the external characteristics that the organization resides in. (Burns, Stalker, Lawrence, and Lorsch).
  • Equal Pay Act

    One of the first pieces of legislation relating to diversity in the workplace. The Equal Pay Act ensures that men and women must be paid equally if they ae doing equal work. Statistics may point otherwise in may instances. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    Discrimination relating to employment decisions is prohibited. Including race, sex, religion, color, or national origin. From hiring, firing, pay, promoting, and work conditions. (Jones George 2014).
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Protects workers over the age of 40 from being fired or forced to retire in favor of younger and less expensive workers. Also restricting mandatory retirements for those over 65. (Jones George 2014).
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act

    Organizations may not discriminate in any way against a woman who wishes to become pregnant or is pregnant. They must offer the same benefits to a non-pregnant woman and may not fire or refuse to hire on this basis.
  • Porter's Five Forces

    Porter's Five Forces
    Five forces or potential threats to an organization based on the development of Michael Porter. Rivalry, Entry, Large Suppliers, Large Customers, and Substitue Products are all examples of opportunities and threats. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Japan Dominates the Car Market

    Japan Dominates the Car Market
    Japanese Car companies, such as Toyota, dominate the global car market due to their efficient implementation of the Lean Production Technique, pioneered by Toyota.
  • Peters and Waterman's Excellent Company

    Peters and Waterman's Excellent Company
    The duo comprised a list of 62 organizations which were viewed as the best in the United States. They concluded that the organizations were managed by a set of three common principles. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Senge's 5 Principles

    Peter Senge developed jointly, the 5 ways in which you create a learning organization. Nederveen Pieterse, A., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Derrendonck, D. (2013). CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE OF TEAM MEMBER GOAL ORIENTATION. Academy Of Management Journal, 56(3), 782-804.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    Vital legislation which ensures the rights of the disabled, physical or mental, are upheld. Employers must make good accomodations for their employees and customers who may have or develop a disability at some point. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Civil Rights Act of 1991

    Much like Title VII, but it goes a few steps further. It makes it possible to recover punitive and compensatory damages, in cases of proven discrimination. (Jones, George 2014)
  • Family and Medical Leave Act

    12 weeks of unpaid leave be allowed to individuals for medical and family related reasons. Paternity and illness of family members are included. (Jones, George 2014).
  • Major Outsourcing

    Major Outsourcing
    Since the millenium the United States has seen a dramatic increase in the outsourcing of jobs overseas. Primarily in manufacturing but it can be seen in many other sectors as well. The course textbook states, "over 3 million jobs have been lost since the year 2000 as companies moved operations to other countries". Outsourcing did not begin in 2000, but it did become much more prevalent over this last decade.
  • Sharp Downward Turn

    Sharp Downward Turn
    The US and global recession hit a sharp downward curve at this time. Companies folded and hundreds of others had to implement management strategies that could effectively navigate through the hard times. This was essentially the start of the Great Recession in the world. Crossan, M. M., Maurer, C. C., & White, R. E. (2011). Reflections on the 2009 AMR Decade Award: Do We have a Theory of Organizational Learning?. Academy Of Management Review, 36(3), 446-460.