History of Managment Timeline

  • Scientific Management Theory

    Scientific Management Theory
    Born in 1856, F.W. Taylor founded scientific management towards the end of the 19th century. Taylor was interested in improving efficiency at work through studying the relationships between workers and their tasks. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 39-40.) George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (2013). Contemporary Management: 8th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
  • Theory of Bureacracy

    Theory of Bureacracy
    At the beginning of the 19th century Max Weber created the theory of bureacracy based on hierarchy, clear roles, SOPs and rules, and a system that values and rewards employees. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 45-46.)
  • Andrew Carnegie

    Andrew Carnegie
    Born in 1835, Andrew Carnegie went from rags to riches and through his hard work, insight, and perseverance he created one of the largest steel-making companies in the U.S. by 1900. Instead of relying on other businesses to provide the services needed to make steel, Carnegie eliminated the intermediaries and profited from all angles of the steel-making business. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 43-44.)
  • Managerial Tasks

    Managerial Tasks
    Henri Fayol introduced the concept of essential managerial tasks during the 20th century. These tasks are: planning or choosing suitable objectives, organizing or creating relationships between jobs and authority, leading or inspiring workers to complete organizational goals and tasks, and controlling or monitoring the effectiveness of the organization. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 8.)
  • Fordism

    In 1908 Henry Ford introduced and engineered the moving conveyor belt to increase efficiency and effectiveness at his manufacturing plants. Since then, the conveyor belt has dramtically changed the practices used in manufacturing. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 41.)
  • Hawthorne Studies

    Hawthorne Studies
    The Hawthorne studies were completed between 1924 to 1932. The study revealed that workers increased productivity both when the lighting was dimmed and brightened. Productivity only decreased when the lighting was so dim that only moonlight was available for illumination. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 52.)
  • The Mother of Management

    The Mother of Management
    Mary Parker Follet was considered by some as the mother of business management. In 1926, Follet began teaching her theory of authority. The theory maintains that each individual acts not within the law of authority, but within the "law of the situation" and what that individual gets out of the law determines their effectiveness. Fox, E. M. (1968). Mary Parker Follett: The Enduring Contribution. Public Administration Review, 28(6), 520-529. Retreived From URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/973329.
  • The Behavior Model

    The Behavior Model
    The behavior model developed between 1940 and 1950 operates on the idea of two points, consideration and initiating structure. Consideration is the behavior where managers show confidence and compassion towards employees. Initiating structure is the behavior where managers provide direction and tasks for employees to follow and make certain tasks are accomplished. The behavior model can provide effectiveness and efficiency to an organization. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 443-445.)
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    Theory X and Theory Y
    Douglas McGregor developed the Theory X and Theory Y model shortly after WWII. Theory X asserts that the average worker is inherently lazy and will do as little as possible given the opportunity. By contrast, Theory Y asserts that the average worker is not inherently lazy and will complete tasks that are beneficial to the company. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 53-54.)
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    In 1960, Tom Burns, G.M. Stalker, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Lorsch created contingency theory. Contingency theory suggests that managers are highly dependent on the external environment and base their decisions for the organization on these external environmental factors. This theory claims that there are many ways of completing a task. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 57.)
  • The Open-Systems View

    The Open-Systems View
    In the 60's Robert Kahn, Daniel Katz, and James Thompson created what they called open-systems. Open-systems are those which transform resources from the environment into an end product or service that can then be sold to costumers. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 56.)
  • Free-Trade Doctrine

    Free-Trade Doctrine
    After WWII, the free-trade doctrine was adopted to eliminate trade barriers such as tariffs, and to encourage countries to develop goods and services that they were the most efficient at producing. The theory in practice reduces prices by each country focusing on their available resources for production. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 181.)
  • SWOT Analysis

    SWOT Analysis
    From 1960 to 1970, SWOT analysis was developed. It focuses on an organizations strengths, weaknesses, oportunities, and threats so as to recognize ways and methods to improve in order to maintain organiztional goals. Valentin, E. K. (2001). Swot Analysis from a Resource-Based View. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. 9(2), 54-69. Retrieved From http://www.jstor.org/stable/40470032.
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal Pay Act
    The Equal Pay Act ensures that both women and men are paid the same amount for performing the same job. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 137.)
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    A requirement which prohibits employment from basing their actions through discrimination based on religion, color, race, sex, and national origin. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 137.)
  • Trader Joe's

    Trader Joe's
    Joe Coulombe, distressed from the competing 7-11 gas-station chains branched out and realized a new demand for upscale grocery products. Trader Joe's was formed in 1967 and continues to promote employees from within the business, creates relationships between workers and customers, and develops a fun atmosphere for both costumers and employees. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 9-10.)
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act assures that employees over 40 years old will not be discriminated against due to age and it also restricts a mandatory retirement. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 137.)
  • In Search of Excellence

    In Search of Excellence
    Tom Peters and Robet Waterman set out to find what makes great companies better than their rivals? They found that strong organizations operate with decntralized management, develop organizational goals, and stimulate a sense of common organizational interest by creating a division of work and authority. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 50.)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    The Americans with Disabilities Act forbids employers from commiting discriminating acts against individuals with disabilities and makes sure that individuals with disabilities recieve the proper provisions to complete work tasks. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 373.)
  • Peter Senge

    Peter Senge
    In the 1990's Senge developed organizational learning which focused on collective learning, empowerment of employees through mastery, experimentation, a common organizational model, and systems thinking. Khan, S. A. (1999). Building Organizational Learning Capability. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 35(1), 74-84. Retrieved From http://www.jstor.org/stable/27767635.
  • PDA Uncertainty

    PDA Uncertainty
    Uncertainty at Apple was much to blame for the ultimate tanking and failure of their (PDA) or personal digital assistant. The lack of available research and unpredictability on such a product led to the PDA's failure, but Apple would later release a similar product with great success. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 203.)
  • WTO

    The WTO came into effect in 1995 after replacing the failing GATT. The WTO "continues the struggle to reduce tariffs and has more power to sanction countries that break global agreements." (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 181.)

    The U.S. attempting to fight back against the new global trade unions springing up created its own trade union called NAFTA. NAFTA greatly improved the trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico and aimed to reduce or remove 99% of the tariffs on goods opening the doors for companies like walmart to open facilities in Mexico. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 183.)
  • U.S. Tariff

    U.S. Tariff
    The growing competition from China's ability to produce products at lower costs than many other competitors forced the U.S. to create a tariff on imported vehicle tires from China. This action would help with job security for many Americans who rely on tire production and manufacturing. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 181.)
  • GM Declares Bankruptcy

    GM Declares Bankruptcy
    In 2009 after global competition increased and more companies entered the task environment, GM was forced to declare bankruptcy. GM was forced to retool its methods of efficiency and effectiveness which helped improve the companies performance in 2010. (George, J. M., & Jones, G. R., 2013, p. 177.)