History of Management

By emeeder
  • Evolution of management theory begins

    Managers begin to search for new techniques to manage their rapidly growing organizations in the wake of the height of the Industrial Revolution. .Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (2014). Contemporary Management (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  • Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy

    Max Weber developed the principles outlining bureaucracy characterized by authority having official duties strictly delimited by rules and generally regulated qualifications.
    (n.d.). Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/frommaxweberessa00webe
  • Andrew Carnegie strikes it big

    Through innovation, Carnegie was able to increase the productivity of steelmaking and maximize efficiency. However, his employees worked long hours at low pay, calling for a need for better organization and control techniques (Jones, 2013)
  • Fayol's Principles of Management

    Henri Fayol identified 14 principles of management that he viewed as essential in order to increase the management process's efficiency. (Jones, 2014)
    In 1908 Fayol presented a lecture based on the concepts of the necessity & possibility of teaching management and principles and elements of management. He set forth to illustrate his ideas on how the part of management is played in any form of human undertakings. Retrieved from http://www.library.wisc.edu/selectedtocs/ca1690.pdf
  • Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management

    By 1910, F.W. Taylor's system of scientific management had become nationally known and put into practice. His studies of people in the workplace and creation of four principles to increase efficiency became defining points for scientific management. (Jones, 2014)
  • Behavioral Management Theory

    Since the writings of Fayol were in French, and of Weber in German, they were not published until the later 1940's. This meant that Americans were left out of their developments. Americans took a different route to the study of behavioral management (how managers should act). (Jones, 2014)
  • Ford experiences major employee turnover

    Work-induced stress caused from Ford's new conveyor belts causes 300% or 400% of employees to leave the company. This foces Ford to raise wages. Ford adjusts management/supervisory techniques in order to focus more on employees. This action sparks other car companies to do the same.
  • Hawthorne Studies begin

    Researchers conduct experiments on workers to test how work setting characteristics affect performance. Their studies brought about the "Hawthorne effect" which showed that employee job performance is affected by a manager's behavior and leadership.
  • Mary Parker Follett presents ideas

    Mary Parker Follett calls for "power with," not "power over," but is ignored for decades.
    Sibbet, David. "75 Years Of Management Ideas And Practice 1922-1997." Harvard Business Review 75.5 (1997): 2-12. Business Source Premier. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
  • The Great Depression

    In the depths of the Great Depression, organizations deal with heavy layoffs, shorter hours, and worker's unions. Administration executives deal with public backlash because of their prior bonuses. (Sibbet, 1997)
  • Industrial Union Challenges Management Control

    The Unions formed during the Depression begin to challenge management control. This leads to antitrust pressures for administration. (Sibbet, 1997)
  • End of WWII

    The end of World War II brings a spike in corporate growth and confidence over the next 10 years. (Sibbet, 1997)
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    After WWII, Douglas McGregor came up with two assumptions about attitudes in the workplace. The first, Theory X, assumes that workers are lazy and need to be closely monitored by managers. Theory Y assumes that employees will do what is good for the organiztation and that managers need to encourage forward thinking.
  • Robert Katz

    Robert Katz argues that training, not personality traits, makes the manager. (Sibbet, 1997)
  • The Open- Systems View

    This view developed by Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn, and James Thompson represented an organization as being an open system, meaning that it takes resources from the external environment, shifts those resources into goods and services, and then sends them back to the environment for the consumers to purchase. (Jones, 2014)
  • Equal Pay Act

    Equal pay requires that men and women are paid equally if they are performing the same work. (Jones, 2014)
  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    Prevents employers from discriminating based on gender, ethnicity, and religion when making employment decisions. (Jones, 2014)
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Prevents discrimination against 40+ year old workers. (Jones, 2014)
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory was developed by Tom Burns, G.M. Stalker, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Losch. The idea behind contingency theory is that the external environment of an organization influences the way that it should be structured and controlled. (Jones, 2014), (Sibbet, 1997)
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act

    Employers cannot make decisions based on pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical decisions. (Jones, 2014)
  • Peters and Waterman publish "In Search of Excellence"

    Tom Peters and Robert Waterman wrote a book called "In Search of Excellence" and identified 62 organizations with outstanding performance. These excellently managed companies held true to Henri Fayol's principles of management. (Jones, 2014)
  • Michael Porter

    Michael Porter expands upon "five forces" theory (competitors, new entrants, suppliers, substitutes, and customers) by explaning basic principles of competition and strategy. (Sibbet, 1997)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Requires that employers provide accommodations for disabled workers and prevents discrimination in employment decisions. (Jones, 2014)
  • Civil Rights Act

    Follows Title VII in prohibiting discrimination, but also incorporates awarding of damages if intentional discrimination occurs. (Jones, 2014)
  • Family and Medical Leave Act

    Employers must provide unpaid leave for medical and family reasons. This includes paternity and illness in the family.