The History or Management

  • Henry Lawrence Gantt - The Gantt Chart

    Henry Lawrence Gantt - The Gantt Chart
    Gantt develops a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Some Gantt charts also show the relationships between activities. They are a project tool still in use today. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Fredrick Winslow Taylor - Principles of Scientific Management

    Fredrick Winslow Taylor - Principles of Scientific Management
    Fredrick Winslow Taylor is the first to apply scientific theories to the principles of business management. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles, his theories were the beginnings of business management and they gave Winslow the title of “father of scientific management.” Feiss, R. A. (1924). The life of Frederick W. Taylor. [Review]. Harvard Business Review, 385-88.
  • Henry Ford - Impowers Employees to become customers

    Henry Ford - Impowers Employees to become customers
    Henry Ford introduces a system that pays factory workers all most double and shortens the work day to eight hours. These changes allow Ford employees to become Ford customers and create a strong culture among employees. These changes are a base model for management in subsequent years. Wernle, B. (2013). Looking at Henry Ford the man. Automotive News, 87(6555), 12.
  • Henri Fayol - Administration Industrielle et general

    Henri Fayol - Administration Industrielle et general
    Henri Fayol publishes his theories of organization chains of command, separation of functions and the importance of planning. This theory includes 6 functions of management and 14 principles of management. Fayol’s background was in engineering and his theories supported a Scientific approach to business management.
  • The hawthorne Studies

    The hawthorne Studies
    The Hawthorne studies were done by the Western Electric company at the Hawthorne plant in the 1920's. There were two findings; the experimenter effect and the social effect. The experimenter effect was that making changes was interpreted by workers as a sign that management cared. The social effect was that it seemed that by being separated from the rest and being given special treatment, the employees increased productivity. Porter, C. (2012). The Hawthorne effect today. Industrial Management,
  • Keynes - The General Theory of Employment, Interst and Money

    A Theory published by John Maynard Keynes that asserted that in times of crisis the state must intervene to create jobs and demand. The theory implied that managers wouldn’t be able to handle these responsibilities and it was government’s job to ensure these vital factors remained in strong. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Dale Carnegie - How to Win Friends and Influence People

    Carnegie's book becomes the first to teach people how to employ self management techniques. His theories are used by managers to increase their ability to build relationships with employees and run their organizations more effectively. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Maslows Hierachy of needs

    Maslows Hierachy of needs
    Abraham Maslow uses his exploration of what motivates people to come up with his hierarchy of needs chart. He publishes his theory in the journal article “A Theory of Human Motivation.” His hierarchy from least to most important was; physiology, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. Berl, R. L., Williamson, N. C., & Powell, T. (1984). Industrial Salesforce Motivation: A Critique and Test of Maslow's Hierarchy of Need. Journal Of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 4(1), 33-39
  • Founding of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    The ISO is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. It created the IS0 8402:1994 which standardized a management approach of an organisation centred on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organisation and society.
  • Elliot Jaques - The Changing Culture of the Factory

    The Changing Culture of a Factory is published. It suggests that managers should be measured on the long-term impacts of their decisions, a theory based on long term organizational phsycology rather than short term acheivements. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Drucker - The Practice of Management

    Drucker - The Practice of Management
    Drucker publishes “The Practice of Management” which highlights the 5 basic roles of managers. It also asserts that the first question in discussing organization structure must be; What is our business and what should it be? It also says that organizations should be structured to look a specific time intervals; 5, 10, 15 years. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Paul Lawrence - How to Deal with Resistance to Change

    Paul Lawrence publishes "How to Deal with Resistance to Change.” In introduces the theory that change in organizational structure or culture will be a difficult process and gives pointers on how best to instill these new organizational goals. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Theory Y

    Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Theory Y
    Douglas McGregor challenges the motion that employees will automatically shirk unless they are supervised. Theory X was the traditional view that employees are inherently lazy and should be watched at all times. While Theory Y was a new idea that employees actually take pride in their work and enjoy freedom from supervision. Kopelman, R. E., Prottas, D. J., & Falk, D. W. (2012). Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal Of Managerial Issues, 24(4), 450-4
  • Blake and Mouton - Management Grid

    Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop their management grid model that judges management styles and relations. Their Grid has two axis; "Concern for people" and "Concern for task.” The notion is that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior. This model is nice because of its simplicity. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • International Project Management Association - International Management Systems Association

    1965 International Project Management Association (IPMA) established the International Management Systems Association (IMSA). This system created by the swiss-registered organization was designed to promote internalationally project management theories. The IMSA included 50 countires. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Project Management Institute (PMI)

    The Project Management Institute (PMI) is created to provide a range of services to Project Management profession. These include; development of standards, research, education, publication, networking-opportunities in local chapters, hosting conferences and training seminars, and maintaining multiple credentials in project management. PMI now has many members and affects many trends in management.
  • Gilbert - Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance

    Tom Gilbert publishes “Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance” It outlines his behavioral-engineering model. It asserts that accomplishment specification is the only logical way to define performance requirements and accomplishments are the best tools for the development of performance-based job descriptions. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Poter's Five Forces Model

    Poter's Five Forces Model
    Michael Porter outlines his five forces analysis “How Competive Forces Shape Strategy” His work becomes a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development. The five forces are; Potential Entrants, Suppliers, Buyers, Substitutes, and Industry Competition. Porter, M. E. (2008). THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE STRATEGY. Harvard Business Review, 86(1), 78-93.
  • Hofstedes Five Dimensions Theory

    Hofstedes Five Dimensions Theory
    Geert Hofstede comes up with his “cultural dimensions theory” which is a framework for cross-cultural comparison. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior. The theory has been international management considerations. It includes five dimensions. Blodgett, J., Bakir, A., & Rose, G. (2008). A Test of the Validity of Hofstede's Cultural Framework. Advances In Consumer Research, 35762-763.
  • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award recognizes U.S. organizations for performance excellence. The Baldrige Award is the only formal recognition of the performance excellence of both public and private U.S. organizations given by the President of the United States. The award motivates organizations to create a culture of performance excellence through the best management techniques.
  • Teresa Amible - How to kill creativity

    Teresa Amible publishes her theory that looks at the systematic, but not intentional process that management takes to crush employees creativeness and drive. Harvard business Review (2012 ). Great moments in management . Retrieved from
  • Senge's Five Disciplines

    Peter Senge publishes “The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization” focusing on group problem solving using the systems thinking method to create learning organizations. The five disciplines are; Personal Mastery, Mental Models, Shared Vision, Team Learning, and Systems Think. Elkin, G., Haina, Z., & Cone, M. (2011). The Acceptance of Senge's Learning Organisation Model among Managers in China: An Interview Study. International Journal Of Management, 28(4), 354-364.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Total quality management (TQM) is organization-wide effort to install and make permanent a climate in which it continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. It developed during the late 1980s and early 1990s in the US and Europe before being overshadowed by ISO 9000, Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma. TQM required a specific management system to ensure lean production.
  • Goldratt - Critical chain project management (CCPM)

    Critical chain project management (CCPM) is published. It outlines methods of planning and managing projects that puts the main emphasis on the resources required to execute project tasks. It was developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt. A Critical Chain project network will tend to keep the resources level, but requires flexibility to quickly switch between tasks and task chains to keep the whole project on schedule.
  • Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering - Total Cost Management (TCM)

    AACE publishes “Total Cost Management Framework.” In this methodology, portfolios of assets are optimized through the use of project management as a delivery system, to support and enhance large, strategic or operational programs. Overall it seeks to lower the overall costs of a project and thus increase profits through good management.