The History of Management, Theory & Practice

  • Scientific Management Theory (1890-1940)

    Scientific Management Theory (1890-1940)
    Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) developed the "scientific management theory," which is defined as the study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency.
  • Period: to

    History of Management

  • Grantt Chart

    Grantt Chart
    A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart, developed by Henry Gantt (1861-1919). Gantt chart is a project schedule that illustrates the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Use of Gantt chart - Tutorial. (n.d.). Tutorial. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from
  • The Assembly Line

    The Assembly Line
    Henry Ford (1863-1947) installed the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes.
  • Fordism

    Fordism, named after Henry Ford, is a method of industrial management based on assembly-line methods production of cheap, uniform commodities in high volume, and winning employee loyalty with good wages, but intolerant of unionism or employee participation.
  • Henri Fayol (1841-925)

    Henri Fayol (1841-925)
    Henri Fayol published his "14 Principles of Management" in the book "Administration Industrielle et Generale." His practical list of principles helped early 20th century managers learn how to organize and interact with their employees in a productive way. Henri Fayol's Principles of Management. (n.d.). - Online Management Training From Retrieved February 15, 2014, from
  • Mary Parker Follett

     Mary Parker Follett
    Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) is better known for her pioneering work on management. She looked to approach organizations as group networks rather than as hierarchical structures, and attended to the influence of human relations within the group.
  • Hawthorne Studies

    Hawthorne Studies
    The Hawthorne studies were carried out by the Western Electric company at their Hawthorne plant in the 1920's. Initially, the study focused on lighting. Hawthorne Studies. (n.d.). Hawthorne Studies. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from
  • Bureaucratic Management Theory (1930 ~ 1950)

    Bureaucratic Management Theory     (1930 ~ 1950)
    Max Weber, Father of Modern Organizational Theory, embellished the scientific management theory with his bureaucratic theory. Weber focused on dividing organizations into hierarchies, establishing strong lines of authority and control. He suggested organizations develop comprehensive and detailed standard operating procedures for all routinized tasks.
  • Human relations movement

    Human relations movement
    The human relations movement grew from the Hawthorne studies. Elton Mayo (1880-1949) conducted a series of experiments on worker productivity. He contend that group dynamics and respect from management affect worker performance.
  • Management by Wandering Around

    Management by Wandering Around
    To get connected and stay connected, you need to walk around and talk to your team, work alongside them, ask questions, and be there to help when needed. This practice has been called Management By Wandering Around - MBWA for short. William Hewlett and David Packard, founders of Hewlett Packard (HP), famously used this approach in their company.
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. Related materials. (n.d.). Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and diagrams of Maslow's motivational theory. Retrieved February 15
  • Theory X and Theory Y

    Theory X and Theory Y
    Douglas McGregor expounded two contrasting theories on human motivation and management in the 1960s: The X Theory and the Y Theory. Theory X assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. On the other hand, theory Y expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. It assumes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility.
  • Administrative Behaivor

    Administrative Behaivor
    Administrative Behavior is a book written by Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001). Simon clarified the processes by which goal specificity and formalization contribute to rational behavior in organizations. He distinquished between the decisions a person makes to enter or leave an organization and the decisions they make as a participant. Jemison, D. B. (1981). The Contributions of Administrative Behavior To Strategic Management. Academy Of Management Review, 6(4), 633-642.
  • Quantitative Approach

    Quantitative Approach
    The quantitative approach involves the use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making. This approach to management involves application of statistics, optimization models, information models and computer simulations to management activities.
  • Contingency Theory

    Contingency Theory
    Tom Burns, G.M. Stalker, Paul Lawrence, and Jay Lorsch created contingency theory. Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contend that there is no best way to organize a corporation. The organization / leadership style is contingent upon various internal and external constraints.
  • The Equal Pay Act of 1963

    The Equal Pay Act of 1963
    The Equal Pay Act of 1963 prohibits employers from paying unequal wages, based on gender. Men and women employed in the same establishment, doing substantially equal work must be paid the same wages.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, is considered one of the crowning legislative achievements of the civil rights movement.
  • Managerial grid model

    Managerial grid model
    The managerial grid model is a situational leadership model developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton. The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: concern for people and concern for production. Using the axis to plot leadership ‘concerns for production’ versus ‘concerns for people’, Blake and Mouton defined the five leadership styles: impoverished, country club, produce or perish, middle of the road, and team leadership.
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972

    Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
    The Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Act of 1972 established the Equal Employment Opportunity program, which was designed to guarantee fair treatment to all parts of American society without regard to race, religion, color, national origin, or sex. The act was aimed at removing all discrimination when it applied to employment. Murray, M. (n.d.). Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO). Logistics / Supply Chain. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from
  • Porter’s Five Forces

    Porter’s Five Forces
    Porter's Five Forces Analysis, named after Michael Porter, is an important tool for assessing the potential for profitability in an industry. It works by looking at the strength of five important forces that affect competition: supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalry, the threat of sbustitution, and the threat of new entry.
  • Six Sigma

    Six Sigma
    Six Sigma developed by Motorora seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in the methods.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Total Quality Management (TQM)
    Total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa, and Joseph M. Juran.
  • Peter Senge's Five Learning Disciplines

    Peter Senge's Five Learning Disciplines
    In 1990, Peter Senge published "The Fifth Discipline." His books pulled together his extensive research into what different organisations do to build learning capacity, and why some organisations use learning better than others. Senge codified these practices into what he called 'The 5 Learning Disciplines': Shared Vision, Mental Models, Personal Mastery, Team Learning, and Systems Thinking.
  • The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990

    The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
    Passed by Congress in 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is the nation's first comprehensive civil rights law addressing the needs of people with disabilities, prohibiting discrimination in employment, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications.
  • Disruptive Innovation

    Disruptive Innovation
    Disruptive innovation, a term of art coined by Clayton Christensen, describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up market, eventually displacing established competitors.
  • SWOT analysis

    SWOT analysis
    SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your Strengths and Weaknesses, and for identifying both the Opportunities open to you and the Threats you face. Users of SWOT analysis need to ask and answer questions that generate meaningful information for each category to make the analysis useful and find their competitive advantage.