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18th and 19th Century

  • France claimed to own Canada and Louisiana

  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    Known as the French and Indian War
  • Peace of Paris

    Put end to the Seven Years War
  • Stamp Act

    To raise money for the defense of the colonies.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    9 colonies met in NY in opposition to the Stamp Act
  • "Boston Massacre"

    "Boston Massacre"
    A confrontation between British soldiers and people from the mob.
  • Boston Tea Party

    A group of Massachusetts' colonists boarded British merchant ships in Boston and threw 342 cases of tea into the sea.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    A group of colonial leaders came together in Philadelphia to oppose what they saw as British oppression.
  • American War of Independence

    American War of Independence
    It started in the village of Lexington between British soldiers and Minutemen.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Written by Thomas Jefferson who also named the colonies the United States of America.
  • British army trapped

    After months of being close to losing the war, the American army trapped British soldiers and sent them back to England.
  • Alliance with France

    Benjamin Franklin asked Louis XVI (king of France) to sign an alliance with them.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Britain officially recognized its former colonies as an independent nation.
  • Loyalty to their own state

    The first problem that faced the new US was how to join together these little countries into one united nation which was causing them serious problems.
  • Constitutional Convention

    In order to survive each state sent delegates to this meeting in Philadelphia to talk about changes in the Articles of Confederation.
  • First President

    First President
    George Washington was elected as the first President of the United States.
  • Bill of Rights

    This is the name that received ten amendments about the rights and freedoms of individual citizens which were added to The Constitution.
  • Chiefe Justice of the Supreme Court

    Chiefe Justice of the Supreme Court
    John Adams appointed John Marshall as the new head of the Supreme Court.
  • The war of 1812

    Between 1803 and 1815 Britain and France were at war. Britains stopped American ships and seized their cargoes and also took seamen off and forced them to serve in the British navy.
  • Purchase of Louisiana

    Purchase of Louisiana
    Louisiana belonged to France which ruler was Napoleon who was about to go war and needed money so he sold Louisiana to the US.
  • Expedition to explore Louisiana

    This expedition was led by Lewis and Clark. The explorers set off up Missouri by boat, carrying goods to trade with Amerindians along the way.
  • Congress banned slave ships coming from Africa.

  • American Congress declared war on Britain

    British navy soon gained complete control of the coastal waters of US and blocked American ports.
  • Treaty of Peace

    Despite US and Britain signed a treaty, two weeks later, British forces attacked the city of New Orleans.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    It was decided that slavery would be permitted in Missouri and Arkansas but banned in lands to the west and north of Missouri.
  • Indian Removal Act

    As land was becoming scarcer, the US government passed a law that said all Indians living east of the Mississippi River would be moved west to a place called Indian Territory.
  • The Trail of Tears

    The Trail of Tears
    The Cherokees were driven from their home (between the state of Georgia and the Mississippi River) and forced to march hundreds of miles to what is now the state of Oklahoma. (4000 Amerindians were dead).
  • Texas

    In 1836 Texas became independent from Mexico and in 1845 it was annexed to the US.
  • War with Mexico

    War with Mexico
    Between 1846 and 1848 the US and Mexico were at war.
  • The Manifest Destiny

    The Manifest Destiny
    Mexican territories were annexed (California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado).
  • Gold diggers

    Gold diggers
    A group of workmen discovered gold in California. In the next 20 years, gold discoveries attract people to Nevada, Colorado, Montana, Wyoming and the Dakota Country.
  • California Admitted to the US as a Free State

    Congress decided that California was admitted to the US as a free state and people in Utah and New Mexico could decide whether to own slaves or not.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    It made it easier for southerners to capture slaves who had escaped from their masters. The law called for severe penalties to those who assisted these black people. Slave owners offered rewards (“bounties”) for the return of runaway slaves. This lead to the emergence of “bounty hunters”, who made their living by hunting down fugitive slaves.
  • Congress ended the Missouri Compromise

    Congress ended the Missouri Compromise and let Kansas decide whether to own slaves or not. A race for the control of Kansas began: there was so much killing and violence that the state started to be called “bleeding Kansas”. Neither side won the struggle.
  • The beginning of The Civil War.

    The beginning of The Civil War.
    ▸ 1861. Confederate forces opened fire in Fort Sumter, South Carolina, which was occupied by United States (the Union)’s troops.
  • Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the US.

    Abraham Lincoln  was elected President of the US.
    Republican, anti-slavery
  • Secession

    Eleven southern states announced that they were now an independent nation: The Confederate States of America. Confederacy: Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Mississippi, Virginia, Texas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, along with the provisional governments of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
  • 1862

    The Union captured New Orleans (Louisiana)1862
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    . It was passed by Lincoln and declared that all slaves living in the Confederacy were to make free. This changed the focus of the war from secession to protecting slavery.
  • Homestead Act

    It offered free farms in the West to families of settlers. They had to move and live on it for 5 years and the land became thiers.
  • Confederate forces marched into Gettysburg

    Pennsylvania, but found the Union blocking their way. Union forces won and the Confederacy would never recover from this defeat. This was the biggest battle ever fought in the US.
  • The Gettysburg Address

    I was given by Lincoln, became more famous than the battle because it expressed certain principles of the democratic government.
  • 1864

    The Union marched into Georgia, and occupied Savannah. Then they marched to North and South Carolina, burning and destroying everything they encountered in the way. They wanted to reach Richmond, Virginia (the Confederacy’s capital).
  • 1865

    The Confederacy surrendered in Appomattox
  • 1865

    President Lincoln was assassinated in Washington. He was succeeded by Andrew Johnson, his vice president.
  • 13th Amendment

    It abolished slavery
  • Civil Rights Act

    Despite opposition from the President. It also set up the Freedmen’s Bureau. Both were intended to ensure black people’s rights in the South.
  • Reconstruction Act

    This placed all-white governments in the South under military rule. They would be able to elect their government again only if they accepted the 14th Amendment.
  • 14th Amendment to Constitution

    14th Amendment to Constitution
    It gave blacks the right to citizenships, including the right to vote. All former Confederates except Tennessee refused to accept it. The 14th Amendment was the foundation of the 1950s’ Civil Rights Movement
  • The Fort Laramie Treaty

    The Fort Laramie Treaty
    It declared that large areas within the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains belonged to the Sioux.
  • The first railroad

    The Central Pacific and the Union Pacific lines met at Promontory Point in Utah.
  • 1870

    All southern states had “Reconstruction” governments. Most were made up of blacks, some northerners and some southerners.
  • 1874

    American soldiers found gold in the Black Hills, sacred to the Sioux. The Sioux refused to sell the Black Hills, but the government ignored them, broke the treaty and allowed prospectors and miners to enter the Black Hills.
  • 1877

    Congress withdrew federal troops from the South. Black people were more and more treated as “second class citizens” and robbed of their right to vote.
  • 1880s

    The Great Plains had been divided into states and territories, occupied by farmers, ranchers and shepherds.
  • Drovers or Cowboys

    Drovers or Cowboys
    Texas cattle owners hired drovers or cowboys to drive their cattle to the railroads. By 1881, the grass of the Great Plains was earning the US as much money as the gold mines of its western mountains.
  • Inventors and Industries

    From this year and so on, the industries of the US were bigger and more important than the farmlands.