The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic

  • Beginning of Roman Republic

    In the year 509BC, the Romans set up a republic composed of two consuls (administrators and military leaders), 300 seators (handeled daily government problems and advised the consuls. They also discussed ways to deal with other contries, propsed laws and approved contracts for building roads and temples), judges, assemblies and tribunes (Government officials who protect the rights of plebians).
  • First Punic War

    In 264 BC a war between the Romans and Carthaginians broke out (the First Punic War), lasting for twenty-two years.
    The Carthaginians military strenght lay inits navy, while the Romans strenght was its army. The Romans managed to win this war by improving the Carthagineans' ship model. They added a corvus (a kind of moavble bridge) to their model so they were able to get on to an enemy's ship and fight on its decks. In 241 BC the Carthaginians agreed to make peace with the Romans and left Sicil
  • Second Punic War

    In 218 BC, the Second Punic War began. The Carthaginians were led by General Hannibal Barca who had chosen to attack the Romans by supriseing them. He decided to lead his troops all the way from North Africa through Spain, Gaul (present-day France) and the Alps to get to Rome. Unfortunately, by the time Hannibal and troops arrived in Rome, He had lost so many men and weapons that they weren't able to batter down the city walls. They waited in Southern Italy for 15 years until the Romans attacked
  • Second Punic War (part 2)

    Carthage. Hannibal was called back to defend it. In the end, Hannibal and his army gave up in the town of Zama in North Africa and agreed to pay the Romans a huge sum of money and give up all their territories.
  • Julius Caesar (governor)

    In 58 BC, Julius Caesar was named governor of a Roman Province. There he built up a large and loyal army. Julius began conquering land and soon enough, the Senate began becoming afraid of his power. In 50 BC, the Senate ordered him to break up his legions(groups containing 5,000 soldiers) and return to Rome. Caesar refused to return and overthrew him. By 46 BC, Julius Caesar was dictator of Rome.
  • Third Punic War

    In 149 BC, Carthage began to show signs of regaining power so the Romans atracked, thus creating a thrid punic war. They bruned, ruined their land and killed or sold many Carthaginians into slavery.
    In 146 BC, the Greek city-state Corinth, along with some of its allies, refused to obey Roman order. Romans then bruned everything they found, making them the leading power of the Mediterranean world.
  • Julius Caesar (Head of Roman Republic)

    In 46 BC, Julius Caesar became the head of the Roman Republic. He brought many changes to the Roman Republic. He redistributed state lands, built roads, buildings and draining systems, organized free gladiator games to avoid plebians turning against him, gave Roman citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards and Gauls and even adopted a new calendar, similar to the Egyptian one, and name the month July after himself.
  • Julius Caesar (death + end of the Republic part 2)

    the dictator of Rome.
  • Julius Caesar (death + end of the Republic)

    He did an awful lot to help Rome, but some were still scared he would make himself king. So on March 15th, 44 BC, Julius Caesar was stabbed to death by 60 senators.
    After Caesar's death, Marc Anthony, Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus took command over different sections of the Roman Republic (when three governors rule it is called a triumvirate). The triumvirate only worked for a while, until the 3 leaders turned against each other and fought. Octavian won in 31 BC. 4 years later he became
  • Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus

    In 133 BC, Tiberius Gracchus became tribune. He wanted to limite the amount of land a person could own. Tiberus divided public land and gave it to plebians. He believed equality between plebians and patricians was essential. He tried running for tribune again, but since it was illegal, him and many of his followers were assasinated.
  • Gaius Sempronius Gracchus

    In 123 BC, Gaius Gracchus, Tiberius's younger brother, was elected as tribune. He believed moving the poor from the city back to the countryside would answer Rome's problems. He had sold wheat to the poor below market price, so soon wheat was almost given away instead of sold. Then in 121 BC, the Senate had Gaius killed because he felt threatened by him.
  • General Gaius Marius

    In 107 BC, General Gaius Marius became consul. He convinced the poor to join the army by offering them gifts. This strategy worked until his soldiers became more loyal to the general than the government. Marius opposed to Lucius Cornelius Sulla, another general. He wanted all the power. Sulla was furious so he marched his army on Rome and seized it. A civil war broke out and when it was over, Sulla made himself dictator of Rome. He doubled senate size, gave senators more duties and weakend the
  • General Gaius Marius (part 2)

    power of the tribunes.
  • Julius Caesar (early life)

    In July 102 BC, Julius Caesar was born into one of the oldest patrician families in Rome. He was educated in Rome and Greece and like other noble families, Caesar chose to pursue a military career.