• Scientific development

    Scientific development
    Many cultural and scientific advances were made in the 19th century. The great scientific revolution of the 17th century was followed by a second scientific revolution during this period. This was caused by the following factors:
    The creation of schools, universities, scientific societies and research centres to support the industrialisation process,
    academic prestige and experimentalism.
  • Realism

    Realist literature was developed by authors such as Honoré de Balzac (France), Charles Dickens (England), Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Russia) and Benito Pérez Galdós (Spain).
  • Suffragism and Feminism

    Suffragism and Feminism
    Because of these injustices, women, especially in Great Britain, began to form groups calling for gender equality. Because their main demand at the time was the right to suffrage or to vote, they became known as suffragists, or suffragettes in Great Britain. Later they also began to demand changes to their economic situation, equal opportunities for education and equality before the law.
  • Naturalism

    Naturalistic writers depicted everyday reality with extreme realism. In naturalistic works, people would change for the better if their living conditions changed. Émile Zola (France) and Emilia Pardo Bazán (Spain) were important naturalistic writers.
  • Armed peace (1890-1914)

    Armed peace (1890-1914)
    After Bismarck resigned in 1890, the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary and Italy) and the Triple Entente (Russia, France and Great Britain). In the Triple Alliance, each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any other great power, or, in the case of Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone.
  • Suffragism in spain

    Suffragism in spain
    The fight for women’s right to vote in Spain did not begin until well into the 20th century. This was because of Spain’s limited industrial and cultural development, and the power of the Catholic Church. Women’s initial demands were therefore related to motherhood, looking after family and certain civil rights.
  • Balkan wars

    Balkan wars
    In 1912, two Balkan Wars began. In the first, an alliance of Balkan countries– Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece–declared war on the Turks, leading to the withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire from Europe. In the second, the former allies fought each other. Serbia, which had the support of the Russians, benefited from this war.
  • Women and the Struggle for Voting

    Women and the Struggle for Voting
    The situation would change thanks to the Great War, when 20 million soldiers went to fight in Europe. The jobs previously done by men then had to be done by women. As huge numbers of women joined the workforce and proved that they could do the tasks required quite efficiently, women demonstrated to the world that they were just as capable of helping their countries as men.
  • Women and the Struggle for Voting

    Women and the Struggle for Voting
    At the end of the war, other nations began to recognise women’s right to vote, such as Germany, Canada, Spain, the United States, Great Britain, Holland, Ireland, Luxembourg and Sweden. However, complete legal and economic equality was not achieved until after the Second World War. Even today, equality is still an issue for many Western governments.

    She is considered the most important British feminist of her time. She was an activist and leader of the suffragette movement, but was criticised by her contemporaries for the very aggressive methods - such as smashing windows and supporting arson - that she used to make her views known.