The History of the World, I Guess

  • 20,000 BCE

    Israel Exerts Control Over Wild Grain

  • 11,000 BCE

    Syria Plans to Cultivate and Select the Traits of Rye

  • 11,000 BCE

    Greece Domesticates Lentils, Vetch, Pistachios, and Almonds

  • 9500 BCE

    Levant Domesticates Eight Key Crops

    Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Cyprus, Turkey)
    Crops (emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chickpeas, and flax)
  • 9100 BCE

    Klimonas is Founded

    oldest known agricultural settlement; modern-day Cyprus
  • 9000 BCE

    Central and Southwest Asia Domesticate Sheep

  • 8000 BCE

    Egypt Establishes Farms Along the Nile River

  • 8000 BCE

    China Domesticates Rice and Millet

  • 8000 BCE

    Goats are Domesticated

    modern-day Iran
  • 8000 BCE

    Pigs are Domesticated

    modern-day China and Germany
  • 8000 BCE

    Mexico Domesticates Maize and Squash

  • 7000 BCE

    Mesopotamia Establishes Agriculture

    modern-day Iraq
  • 7000 BCE

    Indus Valley Civilizations Use Agriculture

    modern-day Pakistan and India
  • 7000 BCE

    Cattle is Domesticated

    North Africa, India, and Mesopotamia
  • 6000 BCE

    The Iberian Peninsula Uses Agriculture

    modern-day Spain and Portugal
  • 6000 BCE

    Chickens are Domesticated

    India and Southeast Asia
  • 6000 BCE

    Llamas are Domesticated

    modern-day Peru
  • 5500 BCE

    Field Systems are Used

    stone walls; modern-day Ireland
  • 5500 BCE

    Large-Scale Intensive Cultivation of Land, Mono-Cropping, Organized Irrigation, and a Specialized Agricultural Labor Force is Developed

    modern-day Iraq
  • 5400 BCE

    Eridu, Mesopotamia is Settled by the Sumerians

    modern-day Iraq
  • 5000 BCE

    Rice and Sorghum are Domesticated in Africa's Sahel Region

    Sahel Region (Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Algeria, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Ethiopia)
  • 4500 BCE

    Uruk, Mesopotamia Becomes the First City

    Sumerian settlement; modern-day Iraq
  • 4000 BCE

    Horse is Domesticated

    modern-day Ukraine and Kazakhstan
  • 3500 BCE

    Wheel is Invented

    Mesopotamia, Eastern Europe, and the Caucasus (Iraq, Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania
  • 3200 BCE

    Writing Systems are Developed

    Mesopotamia (Cuneiform); Egypt (Hieroglyphics); Indus Valley (Indus Script)
  • 3000 BCE

    Ox-Draw Ard Plow is Developed

  • 3000 BCE

    Iron Ore Smelting is Developed

    made wrought iron; modern-day Iraq and Syria
  • 2900 BCE

    Uruk Becomes the Largest City in the World

  • 2560 BCE

    Great Pyramid of Giza is Built by the Ancient Egyptians

    for Pharaoh Khufu in the Giza Plain
  • 2075 BCE

    Lagash, Mesopotamia Becomes the Largest City in the World

    Sumerian city; modern-day Iraq
  • 2030 BCE

    Ur Becomes the Largest City in the World

    Sumerian city in Mesopotamia; modern-day Iraq
  • 1850 BCE

    Proto-Canaanite Script is Developed

    gave rise to the Phoenician alphabet
  • 1800 BCE

    Iron Ore Smelting is Used in India

  • 1754 BCE

    Code of Hammurabi is Written

    by Babylonian King Hammurabi; one of the earliest legal codes; modern-day Iraq
  • 1500 BCE

    Hittites Develop Furnaces

    "bloomers"; modern-day Turkey
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 550 BCE

    Ancient Near East Iron Age

  • Period: 1200 BCE to 200 BCE

    South Asian Iron Age

  • Period: 1200 BCE to 200 BCE

    East Asian Iron Age

  • Period: 1190 BCE to 700 BCE

    Aegean Iron Age

  • Period: 1100 BCE to 700 BCE

    Italian Iron Age

  • Period: 1100 BCE to 150

    Balkan Iron Age

  • Period: 1100 BCE to 800 BCE

    Greek Dark Ages

  • 1050 BCE

    Phoenician Alphabet is Developed

    all-consonant; gave rise to Semitic, Hebraic, and Arabic scripts
  • Period: 900 BCE to 650 BCE

    Eastern European Iron Age

  • 800 BCE

    Greeks Adapt the Phoenician Alphabet

    convert some letters to vowels; gave rise to the Roman and Cryllic alphabets
  • Period: 800 BCE to 50 BCE

    Central European Iron Age

  • Period: 800 BCE to 100

    British Iron Age

  • 753 BCE

    Rome is Founded

  • Period: 700 BCE to 480 BCE

    Archaic Greece

  • 595 BCE

    Solon Institutes Constitutional Reform in Athens

    ancient Greece
  • Period: 509 BCE to 27 BCE

    Reign of the Roman Republic

  • Period: 500 BCE to 800

    Northern European Iron Age

  • 490 BCE

    Battle of Marathon

    Greece stops the first Persian invasion
  • 480 BCE

    Athens and Sparta Repel the Second Persian Invasion

    Greece; at Salamis and Plataea
  • Period: 480 BCE to 280 BCE

    Classical Period of Greece

  • 479 BCE


  • Period: 461 BCE to 429 BCE

    Reign of Pericles

    Athens, Greece; during a golden age of arts and culture
  • 458 BCE

    Oresteia is Written

    trilogy of tragic plays by Aeschylus; performed in Athens, Greece
  • 440 BCE

    The Histories is Written

    by Herodotus; account of the Greco-Persian wars
  • 432 BCE

    Parthenon is Built

    Acropolis, Athens, Greece
  • Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE

    Peloponnesian War

    Greece's civil war; Sparta defeats Athens
  • 429 BCE

    Oedipus Rex is Written

    tragic play by Sophocles; performed in Athens, Greece
  • 400 BCE

    Hippocratic Oath is Articulated

    for physicians to do no harm; Hippocrates; Greece
  • 400 BCE

    Birth of Buddhism

  • 386 BCE

    Plato Opens the Academy

    Athens, Greece
  • 338 BCE

    Battle of Chaeronea

    gave Macedon under Philip II and Alexander power over all Greek city-states, such as Athens
  • 336 BCE

    Aristotle Opens the Lyceum

    Athens, Greece
  • 336 BCE

    Alexander the Great Becomes King

    of Macedon; modern-day Greece
  • 333 BCE

    Battle of Issus

    conflict between Greece under Alexander the Great and Persia under Darius III; in Turkey
  • 332 BCE

    Alexander's Conquest of Syria and Egypt

  • 331 BCE

    Battle of Gaugamela

    conflict between Greece under Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire; Alexander emerges as ruler of the Persian Empire; in Iraqi Kurdistan
  • 327 BCE

    Invasion of the Indian Subcontinent

    by Alexander the Great; in Pakistan
  • 323 BCE

    Death of Alexander the Great

  • 221 BCE

    Unification of China

    under Emperor Qin Shi Huang
  • Period: 218 BCE to 201 BCE

    Second Punic War

    wars between Carthage and Rome
  • 206 BCE

    Great Wall of China is Built

    under Qin Shi Huang
  • 202 BCE

    Battle of Zama

    end of the Second Punic War; modern-day Tunisia; Rome under Scipio Africans defeats Carthage under Hannibal
  • Period: 149 BCE to 146 BCE

    Third Punic War

    final war between Carthage and Rome
  • 146 BCE

    Carthage is Razed

  • 49 BCE

    Julius Caesar Crosses the Rubicon

    initiated the Roman Civil War
  • 45 BCE

    Julian Calendar is Made

    reformed under Julius Caesar; had 365 days, 12 months, and leap years; modern-day Italy
  • 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar is Assassinated

    by Brutus, Cassius, and the Senate
  • 31 BCE

    Battle of Actium

    end of Roman civil wars; Rome under Octavian against Egypt under Mark Antony and Cleopatra; in Greece
  • 27 BCE

    Octavian is Made Imperator by the Senate

    ceded power to him and marked the beginning of the Roman Empire
  • Period: 27 BCE to 180

    Pax Romana

    a period of relative peace in the Roman Empire
  • Period: 27 BCE to 476

    Reign of the Roman Empire

  • 4 BCE

    Birth of Jesus

  • 9

    Battle of Teutoberg Forest

    Germanic forces under Arminius ambushed and destroyed three Roman legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus; modern-day Germany
  • 29

    Crucifixion of Jesus

  • 50

    Paul Writes Thessalonians

    earliest known Christian text
  • 312

    Battle of Milvian Bridge

    Constantine defeats rival Maxentius to become co-emperor of the Roman Empire
  • 313

    Edict of Milan in Issued

    by Constantine and Licinius; made Christianity legal in the Roman Empire
  • 390

    Edict of Thessalonica is Issued

    by Theodosius; made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
  • 395

    Death of Theodosius

    divided the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western portions
  • 410

    Sack of Rome

    by the Visigoths under Alaric
  • 476

    End of the Western Roman Empire

    Germanic tribes under Flavius Odoacer revolt and depose Romulus Augustulus
  • 570

    Muhammad is Born

  • 622

    Muhammad Leads the Hejira from Mecca to Medina

  • 632

    Qu'ran is Completed

  • 632

    Death of Muhammad

  • 732

    Battle of Tours-Poitiers

    conflict between the Franks under Charles Martel against the Umayyad Caliphate Army under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi; halted Muslim advance into Western Europe; in France
  • 776

    Olympic Games are Founded

    Archaic Greece
  • 800

    Charlemagne is Crowned First Holy Roman Emperor

    crowned by Pope Leo III; Carolingian King of the Franks and the Lombards
  • 1582

    Gregorian Calendar is Created

    issued by Pope Gregory XIII to fix the inaccuracies of the amount of leap years; modern-day Italy