The History of Islam in India

  • 1500 BCE

    1. The Beginning of Hindu in India

    1. The Beginning of Hindu in India
    Hindu culture was brought by the Aryans became one of the first religions in India. Islam was not yet practiced, however the population was exposed to it through trade.
  • Period: 320 to 550

    2. The Hindu Golden Age

    After Alexander the Great invaded India, the first Hindu empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya. His children, grandchildren, and later ancestors grew this empire and ushered an era of science, technology, and literature. The strength of this empire was significant and shows how deeply rooted Hindu is in India, and how Islam would be a disruption when introduced.
  • 629

    3. The First Mosque in India

    3. The First Mosque in India
    After being exposed to Islam and their way of life through trading, many Indians began to convert to Islam, especially those in the lower caste system. In 629, the first mosque in India was built by Malik bin Dinar, a companion of Muhammad, in Kerala providence. Islam continued to spread after this.
  • Period: 900 to 1500

    4. The Conquering of India

    In the 10th century, an Islamic Turkic Tribe annexed the Punjab area of India. This signified the first area of muslims living in India.
    By 1200, a majority of northern India had been conquered by Muslim warlords. For the next 300 years, the Muslims pushed Hindu Kingdoms to the very southern parts of India. The rise of Islam had begun.
  • Period: 1526 to

    5. The Conquering of India Continued

    The Mughal Empire was formed in 1526 by Babur. He and his ancestors grew the islamic empire to rule a large portion of the Indian sub-continent. However, to keep peace, they allowed their non-Muslim subjects to have administrative opportunities and continue their religion because of the inclusivist beliefs of Islam. Though this empire was ended by the British in 1858, the muslim population was strong from the years of control they had.
  • Period: to

    6. Under British Control

    In 1858, Great Britain took control of India from the Mughal's at the Battle of Plassey. Britain allowed for the Mughal empire to continue its existence under their rule without having their own power. The Hindu Martha Confederacy was also toppled by Britain in the early 1800s. Therefore, both Muslims and Hindus had to live under British rule. This lack of power allowed for the groups to conflict with each other.
  • Period: to

    7. The Beginning of the Modern Hindu-Muslim Conflict

    The religious conflict heightened when Lord Curzon of Britain wanted to partition Bengal. This angered the elite Hindu Minority in the area who would lose money from the majority of Muslim renters the partition. The result was a rise of violence from Hindu nationalists and the formation of the All-India Muslim League of Muslim elites in 1906. The League's goal was to protect Muslim rights and was a key factor in the creation of Pakistan as a new homeland for Indian Muslims later on.
  • 8. Bloodshed over Pakistan

    8. Bloodshed over Pakistan
    The partition caused extreme violence, deadly riots, and mass migration. Hindus traveling to India and Muslims traveling to Pakistan fought and terrorized the lands in between. Trains were soaked with blood and bodies were in the streets. It was estimated that 200,000- 2 million were killed from these events. Although Pakistan was created, many Muslims remained in India as well.
  • Period: to

    9. The Cause of the India-Pakistan Wars

    Due to disputed territories, tension was high after Pakistan became a country. This included three states, two of which who had a large Hindu population, despite being ruled my Muslims. Those states were annexed by India. The remaining state had a Hindu ruler and he decided to join India, even though 85% of the area was Muslim. This sparked the first of the three India-Pakistan wars where Bangladesh was created as a result in 1971. These events angered Muslims further.
  • Period: to

    10. Hindu Power in India and Violence

    With Kashmir divided between Pakistan and India as well as older grudges to spark Hindu nationalism, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was brought to power in India in 1998. In 1992, the Mosque of Barbur was destroyed and Hindu nationalists wanted to replace it with a temple. This caused extreme riots and thousands of deaths. Years later, anti-Muslim violence was at large after an attack on Hindus in 2002 by buring a train. Hundreds of Muslims died as a result of this violence.
  • Period: to

    11. Islamophobia in India

    In present day, there are about 200 million muslims in India. However, they are the minority to Hindus and have faced anti-muslim sentiments, especially under Prime Minister Narenda Modi and the BJP. Since his election, the Indian government has ignored Muslim rights and discrimination in the Citizenship Amendment act, thus causing protests and more tension. Police have been seen to avoid helping Muslims and they also experience discrimination in housing, employment, and education.
  • 12. The World's Response to Muslim Discrimination in India

    12. The World's Response to Muslim Discrimination in India
    The rest of the world has not done much to aid the struggling Muslim community in India besides condemning the BJP and the Citizenship Amendment Act. Also, the 57 states apart of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation have strongly advised India to stop this islamophobia.
  • Works Cited

    Maizland, Lindsay. “India's Muslims: An Increasingly Marginalized Population.” Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations, 20 Aug. 2020, Entries 8, 11, 12 “Soul of India: Timeline.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 19 Sept. 2002, Entries 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10
  • Works Cited 2

    Zafar, Abu. “Islam and Muslims in India.” MOST, Science and Technology Center, Taipei Economic and Cultural Center in New Delhi, Aug. 2021, Entry 3