The History of Instructional Design and Technology

By rcheek2
  • First school museum opens in St. Louis

    First school museum opens in St. Louis
    These museums served as the holding and distribution center for media that could be used in the classroom.
  • Visual Education

    Visual Education
    The Keystone View Company published this book for teachers as a guide to lantern slides and stereographs.
  • The first catalog of instructional films was published

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    The growth of the visual instruction movement

    During this time period there was a large growth in the visual instructional movement. Many organizations formed to train teachers on the use of visual technology. However, due to several reasons, mostly teacher resistance to change, the impact was not as prominant as it could have been.
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    The visual instruction movement becomes the audiovisual instruction movement

    This title change came due to the new technologies in sound and combining visual imagery with sound.
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    The impact of the radio

    The radio was thought to be the tool that revolutionized education, but over the next 20 years it would fade out. This was mostly due to teacher resistance to change as well as poor signals and scheduling problems.
  • Department of Visual Instruction forms

    This is a merger of three national organizations for visual instruction. Now, the leadership of this movement was in one unified organization. This organization will later be known as the AECT.
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    America enters WWII

    WWII Military Videos
    During the war, the American military produced hundreds of instructional videos for use in training.

    The military also brought in many experts in psychology and education to conduct research and develop training materials.
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    Training is as a systems approach

    After the war the psychologists and educators responsible for the training projects of the military began researching on instructional problems. They began viewing instructional design as a systematic approach.
  • The beginning of the computer

    The beginning of the computer
    Even though computers were around for several years, it was not until the 1950's that the computer began being used for educational purposes. IBM became the leader in this field.
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    Television and Education

    1950's educational videoIn 1952 the FCC set aside 242 TV stations for educational use. By 1955 there were 17 stations, and by 1960 there werer 50 stations used for education. This quickly went out of fashion due to teacher resistance, poor quality of instructional delivery, and the expense of training teachers and maintaining TV equipment.
  • The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching

    The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching
    Written by B. F. Skinner, it describes what he calls programmed instructional materials. These materials should present instruction in small steps, require active responses to questions, provide feedback, and allow for self-pacing. These lessons would also have positive reinforcement.
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    Programmed Instrucion Movement

    Based on B. F. Skinner's theories
  • Psychological Principles in System Development

    Psychological Principles in System Development
    Gagne edited this groundbreaking book. The main theme of the book was how to integrate machine and humans into an operational system.
  • Criterion-Referenced Tests

    Robert Glauser was the first to coin this term, however these tests were being performed for many years prior to this.
  • Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction

    Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction
    Robert Mager: a book teaching educators on how to write objectives. Current day designers write objectives based on the criteria described in this book.
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    Instructional Design Models

    During this period there were several people that developed models to assist with designing instruction, most noteably were Gagne, Glaser, Silvern, Banathy, Barson, and Hamerus.
  • The Conditions of Learning

    The Conditions of Learning
    Foundations of instructional design were described by Gagne in this book. He described: five domains of learning outcomes and the nine events of instruction,
  • Formative and Summative Evaluation

    Formative and Summative Evaluation
    Michael Scriven coined the phrases formative and summative evaluation to describe the analysis methods used prior to instruciton and after instruction.
  • The Systematic Design of Instruction

    The Systematic Design of Instruction
    Dick and Carey published this book that has been a major influence on the instructional design community with their model of instructional design.
  • Computers are becoming common in education

    Computers are becoming common in education
    By this point in history, 40% of elementary schools and 75% of secondary schools were using computers for instructional purposes.
  • How computers were being used

    By this point, in American schools there was one computer for every nine students. The teachers on the other hand, were rarely using them for instructional purposes, and when they did is was mostly for drills and practice.
  • The Internet and beyond

    The Internet and beyond
    Due to the widespread availability of the Internet, computers are being used more as an educational tool. New technologies in software and hardware have also made the use of computers more accepted in the field of education. Buisness has also benefited from the Internet and other computer based technologies to help with training.