The European Industrial Revolution

  • 1709 Abraham Darby introduced coke smelting to his ironworks at Coalbrookdale Shropshire.

    1709- Abraham Darby invented coke smelting and made the mass production of brass and iron goods. Coke smelting replaced charcoal with coal in metal foundries during the process of refining metals; and this was important to Britain's future since charcoal at that time was becoming scarce and was more expensive.
  • 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle

    1733- In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. The original shuttle contained a bobbin on to which the weft (weaving term for the crossways yarn) yarn was wound. It was normally pushed from one side of the warp (weaving term for the the series of yarns that extended lengthways in a loom) to the other side by hand. Large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle. The flying shuttle was thrown by a leaver that could be operate
  • 1764 James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny

    Several inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short time period during the industrial revolution: the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning frame, and cotton gin. These inventions facilitated the handling of large quantities of harvested cotton. In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny, a hand-powered multiple spinning machine that was the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel.
  • 1769: Richard Arkwright patents the water frame.

    Richard Arkwright patented the spinning frame or water frame that could produce stronger threads for yarns. The first models were powered by waterwheels so the device came to be first known as the water frame. It was the first powered, automatic, and continuous textile machine and enabled the move away from small home manufacturing towards factory production of textiles. The water frame was also the first machine that could spin cotton threads.
  • 1785: Edmund Cartwright patents a power loom

    1785- The power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically operated version of a regular loom, an invention that combined threads to make cloth. In 1785, Edmund Cartwright patented the first power loom and built a factory in Doncaster, England to make and process cloth. Edmund Cartwright also made a wool-combing machine in 1789, continued to improve his power loom, invented a steam engine that used alcohol and a machine for making rope in 1797
  • 1793: Eli Whiteny patents the Cotton gin Whitney's invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States. Prior to his invention, farming cotton required hundreds of man-hours to separate the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers. Simple seed-removing devices have been around for centuries, however, Eli Whitney's invention automated the seed separation process. His machine could generate up to fifty pounds of cleaned cotton daily, making cotton production profitable for the southern states
  • Robert Fulton begins steamboat service on the Hudson River

    Robert Fulton begins a steamboat servive
    Then came American inventor, Robert Fulton, who successfully built and operated a submarine (in France) in 1801, before turning his talents to the steamboat. Robert Fulton was accredited with turning the steamboat into a commercial success. On August 7, 1807, Robert Fulton's Clermont went from New York City to Albany making history with a 150-mile trip taking 32 hours at an average speed of about 5 miles-per-hour.
  • George Stephenson begins rail service between Liverpool and London

    The Liverpool & Manchester railway was opened on 15th September, 1830. The prime minister, the Duke of Wellington, and a large number of important people attended the opening ceremony that included a procession of eight locomotives. Unfortunately, the day was marred by one of the government ministers, William Huskisson, being knocked down and killed by one of the locomotives. After his success with the Liverpool & Manchester railway, Stephenson was the chief engineer of the following railways
  • Coal mines Act prevented women and children from working in harsh conditions in mines.

    The Coal mines act The Mines Act of 1842 prohibited the employment of females and boys below the age of 10. It also appointed inspectors to see that the provisions of the act were enforced. Inspection of mines was strengthened in 1850 when inspectors were given permission to go underground to investigate conditions, and a Royal School of Mines was established the following year to train inspectors. In 1860 the lower limit for the age of boys working in the mines was raised to 12. Various safety measures were intro
  • The ‘ Great stink ‘ of London dramatized the increasing pollution in the cities

    The Great Stink The crisis came to a peak in the 'Great Stink' of London in 1858. Such was the overpowering smell from the Thames, that the curtains of the Commons were soaked in chloride of lime in a vain attempt to protect the sensitivities of MPs. It is no surprise that a bill was rushed through Parliament and became law in 18 days, to provide more money to construct a massive new sewer scheme for London, and to build the Embankment along the Thames in order to improve the flow of water and of traffic.