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The Development of Educational Technology from 1950 to 2013

  • Mass Production

    Mass Production
    Mass production of computers begins.
    Computer mass production
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    Instructional Television

    Using television to deliver instructionInstructional TV and Programmed Instruction, a joint effort between the Federal Communications Commission using funding from Ford Foundation, sparked an increase in using television to deliver instruction.
  • Fibre Optics Testing

    Fibre Optics Testing
    Tests began on fibre optics for future mass digital communication.
    Fibre Optics
  • Hard Disc Drive

    IBM created the first hard disc drive.
    IBM's Hard Disc Drive
  • Microchip Invented

    Microchip Invented
    The microchip was invented, making way for future home computers.
  • PLATO Project

    Donald Bitier at the University of Illinois began PLATO, the first CAI large-scale project for the use of computers in education.
  • PLATO System Widely Used

    The PLATO instructional computing system is widely used in colleges and K-12 classrooms.
    PLATO in classrooms
  • Self-paced Programs

    Self-paced ProgramsPatrick Suppes and Richard Atkinson developed self-paced programs of individualized, instructional strategies that allowed the learner to correct his responses through rapid feedback.

    1963 DefinitionDEFINITION - "Audiovisual communications is that branch of educational theory and practice primarily concerned with the design and use of messages which control the learning process."
    Note that the definition takes a fairly narrow view of educational technology, focusing only on audiovisual communications.
  • Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriters

    Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriters
    IBM's MT/STIBM brought out the MT/ST (Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter).
  • ERIC Established

    ERICThe Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is established as a national information system.
  • First Hand-held Calculator

    First Hand-held Calculator
    Hand-held calculatorTexas Instruments develop the first hend-held calculator.
  • Sesame Street Debut

    Sesame Street Debut
    video of Sesame Street's opening first seasonSesame Street DebutSesame Street debuts on public television, launchiing a new era in children's television.
  • Mini-computer PDP-9/e

    "Mini-Computer"Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP-9/e "mini-computer."
  • Pocket Calculators

    Pocket Calculators
    Pocket calculatorsPocker calculators, which first appeared in the early 1970s, rapidly dropped in price over a five-year period. By the mid 1970s, most schools had pocket calculators for student use. By the late 1970s, may students had their own personal pocket calculators.
  • Apple II

    Apple II
    Apple IIApple II, the first computer to come in a plastic case and have color graphics, is introduced in April. No programming knowledge is required.These were the first computers bought by schools for the use of students. There was a wide variety of early educational software written for the machine.
  • Radio Shack TRS-80 Computer

    Radio Shack TRS-80 Computer
    Radio Shack TRS-80 ComputerThe low cost, simple design computer by Radio Shack, the TRS-80, sold 10,000 units in the first month after its release. Its manuals assumed no prior knowledge on the part of the consumer.

    1977 DEFINITION"Educational technology is a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learrning." Human learning involves problems; educational technology can help solve those problems.
  • IBM's Personal Computer

    IBM's Personal Computer
    IBM Personal ComputerIBM introduces the Personal Computer (PC). As computers became more affordable, they became integrated into varous learning environments due to their educational software features and access to the internet.
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    Satellite TV Systems

    Satellite TV systemsSatellite TV systems provide a cost-effective method of offering course materials by video, and students would complete essays about the content learned.
  • World-Wide Web

    World-Wide Web
    World-Wide WebThe World-Wide Web began at the conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire.
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    WWW and Mosaic Web Browsers

    WWW and Mosaic Web BrowsersTim Bernes-Lee developed the World Wide Web and the Mosaic Web browser which lead to the creation of the Internet, which brought drastic changes in education.
  • TI-81 Graphing Calculator

    TI-81 Graphing Calculator
    TI-81 Graphing CalculatorTexas Instruments create the TI-81 graphing calculator.
  • SMART Boards

    SMART Boards
    SMART BoardsSMART releases the first interactive whiteboard. Though it took many years, interactive whiteboards are now common in school classrooms.

    1994 DEFINITION"Instructional technology is the theory and practice of the design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning." Both theory and practice are included in the definition.
  • Classroom Connect

    Classroom ConnectClassroom Connect offers educational WebQuests for classrooms all over the world.
  • NETS Established

    NETS EstablishedInternational Society for Technology Education (NTSE) establishes National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for students, teachers, and administrators.
  • Apple Updates iTunes

    Apple Updates iTunes
    iTunes UpdatedApple updates iTunes, making podcast distribution easier. Educators, particularly at the college level, began to distribute podcasts of educational material.
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    Learning Management Systems

    Learning Management Systems (LMS), for example the merging of WebCT and BlackBoard Inc. in 2005, provide a platform used by school districts and higher education to deliver blended and fully online coures. LMS platforms provide interactive software and online tools, such as discussion boards and dropboxes, to support instructional methods.
  • Flip Video Camera

    Flip Video Camera
    Flip Video Camera is introduced as an affordable digital camcorder; students can now create videos as performance assessment.
  • Participatory Journalism

    Participatory Journalism
    Participatory Journalism, introduced by "USA Today", allows readers to post comments and questions on their online newspaper. Reading and discussion has become mroe than a process limited to a small audience within the walls of the classroom.

    EdmodoEdmodo: Safe Social Networking is developed by Nic Borg and Jeff O'Hara with a safe, secure environment that mimics Facebook.
  • Khan Academy

    Khan Academy
    Khan AcademyKhan Academy, an online repository of over 3000 instructinal videos on YouTube, is open-source and available to anyone. Khan is a springboard for allowing students to create instructional videos, thus creating a student centered approach to learning.

    2008 DEFINITION2008 DEFINITION"Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources." This definition is the current one in use by the AECT. Both study and practice are included in the definition. The first of two new elements to the definition is the mention of "ethical" practice, and the second is the inclusion of performance improvement as one of the aims of educational technology.
  • Apple iPad Introduced

    Apple iPad Introduced
    Apple iPadThe 21st Century Tablet, the Apple iPad, a personal tablet is introduced. Its features include ePubs (eBooks), apps, and access to the Internet. iTunesU and iBookAuthor curates current content and allows easy creation of interactive books and content.