Industrial RevolutionBusinesspeople in Western Europe and the US were looking for ways to increase profits.
They began to study organizations
Key individuals were engineers and technically oriented scientists
It led to the development of organizational theories
Scientific ManagementFrederick Taylor: organizations seen as machines
Focus on efficiency
Time & motion studies
Rigid discipline on the job
Division of labor
Minimal interpersonal contacts between workers
Span of Control
Incentive pay systems
The Assembly LineHenry Ford successfuly lowered the price of Model T to 825 dollars. It was such revolutionary that over 10,000 cars were sold, thanks to the birth of the assembly line which changed the landscape of production line.
Functions of AdministrationHenri Fayol focus on the manager
Controlling (evaluating results)
Hawthorne Studies – Elton Mayo3 Experiments---Studying the relation of quality and quantity of illumination to efficiency in industry.
Increased production rates did not correspond with increased lighting, nor did production decline with reduced illumination.
Mayo found that worker groups developed an informal social structure with norms, values, and sentiments that affected performance.
Human Relations ApproachConsidered to started with the Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo.
Major assumptions: Employees are motivated by social and psychological needs and by economic incentives. /These are more important in determining productivity than the physical conditions of the work environment. /People develop informal social organizations that help or hinder management. /Informal social groups create and enforce their own norms and codes of behavior. / Employees work harder under supportive management.
Chester Bernard- The Functions of the ExecutiveHis executive experience and extensive readings in sociology and organizational psychology resulted in one of management's few classic textbook. First to think in terms of formal and informal organizations within organizations:
-Formal organizations – formally established for an explicit purpose of achieving goals
-Informal organizations – individuals that interact with each other without any formally established goals or objectives
Max Weber-Theory of BureaucracyDeveloped to address the needs of an urban industrial society which was experiencing conflict between people and the organization.
Theory in educational administration beganInfluenced very little until mid-20th century
No contact between schools of education & business
Taught by former superintendents
Focus on practical, “how-to-do-it”
Research during this time: Status studies of current problems, gathering of opinion
E. Wight BakkeHe views the organization as embodying a fusion process. The individual, he argues, attempts to use organization to further her own goals whereas the organization uses individual to further its own goals
Jacob Getzels and Egon GubaThey developed a useful theoretical formulation for studying administrative behaviour which is a social system analysis
Schools seen as open social systemsThey are specifically goal oriented.The work to be done so as to achieve goals is divided into subtasks and assigned as official duties to established positions in the organization. These positions are arranged hierarchically in the formal organizations, and authority relationships are clearly defined. General and impersonal organizational rules govern what people do in their official capacity and also shape and delimit the interpersonal interactions of people in the organization.
Behavioral Science ApproachCombination of classical organization thought and human relations approach + propositions drawn from psychology, sociology, political science, and economics
Its Focus---Work behavior in formal organizations.
Social Systems TheorySystem: a set of interdependent elements forming an organized whole
Closed: Behavior explained almost exclusively in terms of forces inside the organization.
Open: Organizations influenced, but also dependent on environments
Fred Fiedler- Contingency theory of leadership effectivenessIn some situations relationship-motivated leaders perform better, while other conditions make it more likely that task- motivated leaders will be most effective. Three variables determine this: leader-member relations (the degree to which the leader feels accepted by her followers), task structure (the degree to which the work to be done is clearly outlined), and position power (the extent to which the leader has control over rewards and punishments the followers receive).
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton- Grid SolutionsIn the area of leadership, they assess managerial behavior on two dimensions: concern for production and concern for people. Managers can plot their scores on an eighty-one-celled managerial grid. The grid is designed to helo managers identify their own leadership styles, to understand how subordinates are affected by their leadership style, and to explore the use of alternative leadership styles consistent with employees’ needs.
Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard- Situational leadershipAnother popular leadership theory. It is based primarily on the relationship between follower maturity, leader task behavior, and leader relationship behavior. The theory suggests that the style of leadership will be effective only if it is appropriate for the maturity level of the followers.
Chris Argyris Behavioral science approachHe has a similar view to Bakke. He argues that there is an inherent conflict between the individual and the organization. This conflict results from the incompatibility between the growth and the development of the individual's maturing personality and the repressive nature of the formal organization
Bernard Bass- Transformational leadershipTwo types of leadership behaviors. Transactional leaders determine what subordinates need to do to achieve their own and organizational goals, classify those requirements, help subordinates become confident that they can reach their goals by expending the necessary efforts, and reward them according to their accomplishments. Transformational leaders, in contrast, motivate their subordinates to do more than they originally expected to do.