Teaching Method Timeline

  • The Grammar-Translation Method

    The Grammar-Translation Method
    The grammar-translation method was developed at the beginning of the 19th century and was most prevalent until the mid 20th century; this method required the teachers to set grammar-translation activities, the students translate words and sentences from their mother tongue to the target language. The most predominant advocates for the early adoption of this method were German scholars such as Karl Plötz and Johann Seidenstücker.
  • The Direct Method

    The Direct Method
    The direct method was a direct response to the grammar-translation method; it was established in Germany and France around 1900. This method required the sole use of the target language, setting aside the learner`s mother tongue. L. Sauveur (1826-1907) was one of the early adopters of this method. According to him, to learn a language, the students needed to forget about using their mother tongue, as focusing only on using the target language was the key to learning the language.
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    The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching

    The Oral Approach or Situational Language Teaching was developed in England by British Applied Linguists between the 1930s and the 1960s. The main focus for this method is set on a structural view of the language where a basic vocabulary is seen as one of the most important attributes; the student must develop to master the language.
  • The Audiolingual Method

    The Audiolingual Method
    The audio-lingual method was developed by the US during the second war world as an attempt to teach their military personnel different languages to interact easily in other countries. As a result, the Army specialized training program (ASTP) was created in 1942.
  • The Silent Way

    The Silent Way
    The Silent Way method was developed by Caleb Gattegno, first introduced in 1963. This method regarded silence as a means of assisting the students by internalizing what they were learning and understanding their mistakes on their own. The method uses a structural syllabus and a small number of functional and versatile words to develop the language in the students.
  • Total Physical Response

    Total Physical Response
    The Total Physical Response method was created by Dr. James J Asher in 1967. This method is based on the way that babies learn their mother tongue by interacting with their parents and other adults around them. In this method, the teacher acts as the parent in the learning environment and provides some short phrases or commands so that students learn by doing.
  • The communicative language teaching approach

    The communicative language teaching approach
    The communicative language teaching approach is also known as the communicative approach was developed by Michael Halliday in 1970. This is an approach to teaching a language to a person through creating interaction between the students themselves and their teacher. It creates naturalization and internalization of the targeted language; therefore, the student can use it inside and outside the classroom.
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    Natural approach

    The Natural method was developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell between 1970 and 1980. This method was developed to present an option where the students learn a new language as stress-free as possible. Making learning a new language naturally and not forced into the students, allowing the students to Learn large amounts of grammar and waiting for natural and spontaneous use of all this knowledge by the student.
  • Suggestopedia

    The Suggestopedia method was developed by Georgi Lozanov in 1979. This method was developed to assist the students to feel more comfortable and confident in the classroom environment by including arts and music. It is composed of three main stages: deciphering (where the teacher introduces grammar, words, or phrases), concert session (the teacher reads and the students listen or read alongside the teacher), elaboration(student conclude the lesson with dramas, songs, and games).
  • Task Based Language Teaching

    Task Based Language Teaching
    The task-based learning approach (TBL) was developed in the 1980s by N Prabhu, a teacher and researcher in Bangalore, South India. This is an approach that focuses on developing and acquiring the targeted language through tasks or activities performed by the students. The role of the teacher is to act as a guide to the students and ensure they are completing the assigned task successfully.
  • Content Based Instruction

    Content Based Instruction
    The Content-Based Instruction method was developed by Donna Brinton, Marguerite Ann Snow, and Marjorie Bingham Wesche in 1989. This method relies on activities to create desire in the students and acquire a specific language by interacting around something they are passionate about such as a game, an activity, or any topic.