The Supreme Court rules that the segregation of African-Americans in public schools is unconstitutional and unequal. Separate but equal schools are inherently unequal; therefore the desegreation was mandated of all schools. This overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson case.
PL 83-531 Cooperative Research Act of 1954
First federal research program regarding special Edcation and the foundations/beginnings for the Elementary and Secondary Act.
PL 86-158 Training of Professional Personnel Act
Federal legislation that supported to help train leaders to educate children with disabilities
PL 87-276 Teachers of the Deaf Act
To make available specially trained teachers to students who are deaf.
PL 88-164 Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Health Centers Construction Act
Made to provide assistance in working with students with disabilities through research center and mental health cnters. Expanding support for professional preparation of teaching.
PL 89-750 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments
The purpose was to strengthen and improve program of assistance for elementary and secondary schools. This act created the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped which later formed in to Office of Special Education Program
PL 90-247 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments
Was the first peice of Federal legislation regarding not English first language speakers. Also, to provide funding for students with limited English. Giving school districts the opportunity to provide bilingual education.
PL 90-538 Handicapped Children's Early Education Assistance Act
Focused on children ages 3 to 9, emphasizing the preschool years for children. First specific legislation focusing on the educatio of all children with disabilities.
PL 89-313 Federal Assistance to State Operated and Supported Schools for the Handicapped
An amendment to Title 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Provided to strengthen the educational experience of children with disabilities. Directed towards state-run institutions and schools
PL 91-230 Extension of Programs of Assistance Act
Extended and added amendments to the Elemtary and Secondary Act of 1965. By establishing a legal definition of learning disabilities as well as recongnizing the need for special education for gifted and talented students.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Was a case that challenged a Pennsylvania state law that children who did not have a mental ability of 5 years old when entering first grade. The state ruled that children with disabilities must be given full access to a free public education until the age of 21
Mills v. Board of Education of District of Columbia
A class action suit for seven school aged children. The ruling was that a students education is protected under the 14th amendment of the U.S consitution. The case established that the school districts are needed to educate individuals with disabilities no matter the cost.
PL 93-112 The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504
A federal law that prohibits discriminstion of individuals with disabilities in federal programs. There are sections to the act, section 501 prohibits federal emplyers from discrimination of qualified people with disabilities. Section 503 prohibits employment discrimination and section 504 states the any agency that receive federal funding cannot discriminate against individuals with disabilities. Section 508 requires accessible information technology to be avaiable to people with disabilities.
PL 93-380 The Family Educational Right and Privact Act of 1974
Also know as the Education Amendments of 1974. In the response to right to education litigation. Inculdes the right to review, inspect and access to education records. The right to challenge the content of records and the consent of dislosing education records. Address education in the LRE and due process producres and funding for gifted students.
PL 94-142 The Education of All Handicapped Children Act
The act guaranteed a free appropriate public education to all children with disability. Emphasizing designed services to each child's unique needs. Also, to ensure the rights of children and parents with disabilities. To assist states to provide services and to ensure the effectiveness of services.
Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School Distict v. Rowley
Established by the Supreme Court a "basic floor of responsibility," meaning that a shools were only responsible for meeting the basic needs of a child. Therefore schools were not requried to go above and beyond, this was later than challenged.
PL 55-49 Education of the Handicapped Amendments
Used to strengthen programs of part D in IDEA. Promotes intergation in the general education and requires LRE.
Smith vs. Robinson
School must pay for necessary residential placements. This EHA amendment over-ruled the Supreme Court’s decision. The amendment had two outcomes:
-Parents could collect attorney’s fees upon winning a case against the school.
-Parents are permitted to bring a lawsuit under either EHA 504 or 1983 once they have gone through all of the administrative remedies.
Burlington School Committee v. Massachusetts Department of Education
Supreme Court's decision clarifies procedural safeguards and the parents role in the educational process. Also that tution is need to be reimbursement for private placement.
Burlington School Committee vs. DOE
District may have to pay for private placement, even when the parents go against district advice if the placement meets the student's need and the IEP where the district cannot
PL 99-372 Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986
Made to amend the Education of the Handicapped Act. Also in due process to award the attorney fees to the prevailing party.
PL 99-457 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986
Expanded services to young children who have disabilities or are considered at risk. Mainly targeted at presschool level early intervention according to FAPE. In addition, created early intervention for infants and toddlers. Authorized a program for technology for educational needs
Honig vs. Doe
Court ruled that California school board had violated the Education for All Handicapped Children Act when it indefinitely suspended a student for violent and disruptive behaviour that was related to his disability.
PL 101-476 Individuals with Disabilities
Changed the name of Education of the Handicapped Act incorporating people first language. Added two more categories of disabilities autism and traumatic brain injury. Required transition services. Also, it established the parent training and information center
PL 101-336 The Americans with Disabilities Act
This Act prohibits discimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications and governmental activties.
PL 105-17 Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments
Aimed to strengthen the relationship to the general curriculum. Also changed the evaluation process of special education. Modified the construction of IEP regarding state wide and district wide tests. In addition to adding behavior and disipline procedures.
PL 107-110 No Child Left Behind ACT
Educational reform and increased expected levels of all children including students with disabilities. Also, that teachers are expected to be highly qualified in their subject area.
PL 108-446 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments
Coordinating IDEA with No Child Left Behind Act. Amended eligibility procedures, IEP requirments and procedural safeguards. Addes to the discipline procedures.