Law 41

Interactive Special and General Education Law and Case Law Timeline

  • Mendez vs. Westminster and the California Board of Education

    Judge McCormick ruled that because the school had denied an education based on race, it was a violation of the equal protection clause, and the segregation of the child based on race as illegal. This case paved the way for Brown v. Board of Education. (Zonkel, n.d.)
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    It is ruled by Chief Justice Earl Warren that education is a right that should be exercised by all, and available to all on equal terms. (Yell, 2012)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Prohibits discrimination based on sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Passed by Lyndon B. Johnson, the act provides federal funding to help low-income students, such as Title I. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Immigration Act of 1965

    Abolished the National Origins Formula (also known as the National Origins Act, and formally known as the Immigration Act of 1924), removing the restrictions on the number of immigrants and the origin of those immigrating. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • The Higher Education Act

    Signed into law on November 8, it increased federal funding to higher education and provided scholarships, student loans, and established the National Teachers Corps. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Amendment to ESEA

    The amendment to ESEA, Title VI provided additional funding to states to assist in the education of children with disabilities by expanding programs offered in schools. (Yell, 2012)
  • The Bilingual Education Act

    Also known as Title VII, was a federally funded program which mandated schools to provide bilingual education programs. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • The Education of the Handicapped Act

    The act aimed to improve upon the laws that provide educational services to students with disabilities. The act provided grant programs for children with disabilities, to train special education teachers, and to create regional resource centers. (Yell, 2012)
  • Diana v. California State Board

    This case resulted in the law that required schools to test possible special education students in their native, or primary, language. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • PARC v. Pennsylvania

    The federal court rules that students with disabilities (those who are mentally retarded) are entitled to a free public education (FAPE) . (Yell, 2012)
  • Mills v. District of Columbia Board of Education

    This case and its ruling stems from the case of PARC v. Pennsylvania. The court not only rules that students with disabilities are entitled to a free public education, but require that they are provided with adequate alternative education services that are individualized to meet that student’s needs. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Title IX

    The law prohibits the discrimination of students based on sex in all aspects of education, including sports, classes, and after school programs. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 protects the civil rights of people with disabilities and ensures that students with disabilities are given supports and services in public schools. It prevents the discrimination against students with disabilities to participate in school activities, classes, programs, and access to sections of the building due to their disability. It also requires students to have a written 504 Plan, ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • The Education Amendments

    The amendment incorporated the rights that were upheld in the court rulings of PARC v. Pennsylvania and Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia. (Yell, 2012)
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)

    The act sought to eliminate the discrimination against students with disabilities and to ensure that all students with disabilities have access to a public education. Required schools to create an IEP for students, to include placement in the least restrictive environment, and to establish procedural safeguards.
    (Yell, 2012)
  • The Refugee Act of 1980

    The act reformed immigration law and allow for the admittance into the United State more than 3 million refugees. This would create more diverse classrooms in America with more diverse needs. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Board of Education v. Rowley

    Ruling solidified Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). The court ruled based upon a student’s actual achievement and what they would be able to achieve without the handicap, his potential achievement. The court ruled that a student must be given all opportunities to achieve his full academic potential by providing him with the same opportunities granted to other students. (Yell, 2012)
  • Plyler v. Doe

    U.S. Supreme Court rules that it is illegal under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to deny access to public education for undocumented school-age children. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • The Emergency Immigrant Education Act

    Provides services to schools with a high number of immigrant students. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Education of the Handicapped Amendments

    The amendment gave incentive to states to begin providing children from birth to age 2 with early intervention programs. (Yell, 2012)
  • Reauthorization of the EAHCA

    EAHCA is now known as Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. It also changes the terminology from handicap to disability, and requires that transition plans are crated for students to enter the workforce and have an independent lifestyle, and also adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the list of eligible disabilities. (Yell, 2012)
  • Improving America's Schools Act

    The law authorized $11 billion in funding to state educational programs. Funds were given to improve Title I throught Title XIV under ESEA. ("Summary of the Improving America's Schools Act," 1994)
  • IDEA Amendments

    The amendments to the IDEA added new IEP content, ade changes to the members of the IEP team, included new disciplinary provisions, required mediation to be offered to parents before due process hearings, and reqorganized the structure of the IDEA. (Yell, 2012)
  • Proposition 227

    California voters pass this law that requires all public schools to provide instruction in English. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • Higher Education Act Amendment

    The act is amended and now requires institutions and state to provide report cards about the quality of teacher preparation. This act is also known as Title II of the Higher Education Act. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • President's Commision on Excellence in Special Education

    Released on July 1, 2002, it was a study that began in October of 2001 of issues related to special education at the federal, state, and local level in hopes of improving special education and students’ performance. The report resulted in 9 major findings and 3 general recommendations: focus on results- not on process, embrace a model of prevention and not on failure (discrepancy model), and view students with disabilities as general education students first. (Berdine, n.d.)
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    NCLB's goal was to increase the academic achievement of all public school students, improve the academic performance of low-performing students, and to have schools adopt scientifically-based instructional programs. To ensure that schools were improving the achievement of students, schools were now required to measure the growth of its students and report them to parents, and ensure students reached proficiency standards.
    (Yell, 2012)
  • Higher Education Act Amendment

    The act is amended to allow greater access to higher education to low and middle income students by providing additional funding in the form of grant studies. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)
  • IDEA 2004

    With this new amendment came an increase to accountability and need for academic progress. More focus was put on writing measurable goals that were tangibly measurable, more focus on progress monitoring, an increase in accountability from special education teachers, and a streamlining of the special education process. It also encouraged the use of RTI instead of the discrepancy model to determine if students were eligible for special education.
    (Yell, 2012)
  • The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act

    Signed into law on February 17, 2009 to promote economic growth and recovery. It also included monies to expand and improve educational opportunities. ("Implementing the Recovery Act," n.d.)
  • Common Core State Standards Initiative

    The CCSS is an initiative to develop and implement standards to properly prepare students for college and careers as well as create standards that are nationally accepted and congruent. ("Common Core State Standards," n.d.)
  • Application and Award of NCLB Waivers

    37 states either apply for, or are granted waivers from the requirements of NCLB in the month of February. By December, 33 states and Washington D.C. are granted waivers for some of NCLB’s requirements. ("American Educational History- A Hypertext Timeline," 2015)