American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and DumbFirst special education school in
the United States, the American
Asylum for the Education and
Instruction of the Deaf and
Dumb (now called the American
School for the Deaf), was
established in Hartford.
Law Mandating CompulsoryRhode Island passed a law
education for all children
Compulsory education is
education which children
are required by law to
receive and governments
Association of Instructors of the BlindThe School for the Deaf and the
School for the Blind offer
programs for hearing impaired
and visually impaired students.
American Association on Mental DeficiencyThe American Association on
Intellectual and Developmental
Disabilities (AAIDD) (formerly
the American Association on
Mental Retardation (AAMR) is
formed to advocate for
handicapped people's rights.
Compulsory Education[Link text]https://www.findlaw.com/education/education-options/compulsory-education.html) By 1918 all States
Wisconsin Supreme Court, in Beattie v. Board of EducationThe Wisconsin Supreme Court upholds a ruling that a student could be excluded from a school based on a disability. The student had a condition that caused drooling and facial contortions. Teachers found the student's presence in class "nauseating"
Council for Exceptional ChildrenThe International Council for
the Education of Exceptional
Children is organized by a
group of administrators and
supervisors attending the
summer session at Teachers
University, and their faculty
members on August 10,
1922. The Council begins
with 12 members. Elizabeth
E. Farrell was the Founder
and first President, 1922‑26.
First white cane ordinancen 1930, the first White Cane Ordinance was passed in Peoria, Illinois, granting pedestrians who are blind “protections and the right-of-way while carrying a white cane.”
The Bradley HomeThe Bradley Home, the
first psychiatric hospital
for children in the
United States, was
established in East
Cuyahoga Council for RetardedParental Advocacy Group
composed of five mothers of
children with mental
retardation who came in
Cuyahoga, Ohio to protest
their children's exclusion
from public schools. Led to
the establishment of a
special class for their
children, even though the
parents sponsored the class.
Cuyahoga County Court of Appeals, OhioRuled that the statute
attendance gave state
department authority to
exclude certain students.
Beginning of the modern Special Education Movement & National Foundation for the Blind & American Federation of the Physically HandicappedThis decade is considered the
beginning of the modern
Special Education Movement.
During World War II, many
young soldiers sustained
injuries that resulted in lifelong
disabilities. The need for
educational and employment
opportunities and services for
these young men created
legislation that would precede
Special Education legislation.
Classification of AutismThe classification of Autism
was introduced by Dr. Leo
Kanner of John Hopkins
Public Law 176: National Employ the Handicapped WeekPublic Law 176 created more
awareness for possibilities for
employment of the
Cerebral Palsy SocietyIn 1946 the US National Society for Crippled Children and Adults established an advisory council on cerebral palsy, which became the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy.
National Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC)ARC was founded in 1950. It
helped identify children with
disabilities and mental retardation
and bring them out of their houses
University of IllinoisThe first institution for research on exceptional children opened at the University of Illinois and began what was to become the newest focus of the field of special education: the slow learner and, eventually, what we know today as learning disability.
Brown v. Board of Education & Social Security Act AmendmentThis decision the
Supreme Court ruled that
separating children in public
schools on the basis of race
the end of legalized racial
segregation in the schools of
the United States,overruling
the "separate but equal" principle set forth in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case.*Social Security Act of 1935 was amended to include a freeze provision for workers who were forced by disabilities to leave the workforce. Video Link text
Council for the Exception Children’s JournalCouncil for the Exception
Children‟s Journal made a
case for ending the
segregation of disabled
Social Security Amendment of 1956The Social Security Act was amended to provide monthly benefits to permanently and totally disabled workers aged 50-64; to pay child's benefits to disabled children aged 18 or over of retired or deceased workers, if their disability began before age 18; it lowered to age 62 the retirement age for widows and female parents.
States Start their own Special EdIn the 1960s states started
setting up their own special
President's Panel on Mental RetardationThe President's Panel on Mental Retardation was appointed by President Kennedy on October 17, 1961, with the mandate to prepare a "National Plan to Combat Mental Retardation."
Association for Children with Learning DisabilitiesParents first joined forces at a
national conference held in
Chicago in 1963. There they
formed the Association for
Children with Learning Disabilities
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) & AmendmentsESEA is an extensive statute that funds primary and secondary education, emphasizing high standards and accountability. As mandated in the act, funds are authorized for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and the promotion of parental involvement.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1966Transferred authority from the
Director of OEO to the U.S.
Commissioner of Education
(Department of Health, Education
and Welfare) Federal grants to
local schools.Not less than 10
percent nor more than 20 percent
reserved for special projects and
teacher training (Sections 309 b
and c) National Advisory Council
on Adult Education and Bureau of
Education for the Handicapped
Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1968Established programs to improve
special education. $100,000 was
provided as the base for the state
allotment and Private non-profit
agencies added as eligible local
Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1970Established a core grant program
for local education agencies.
Revised statement of purpose to
include adults who had attained
age 16 and had not graduated
from high school, State allotment
base raised to $150,000, Special
emphasis given to adult basic
appointed National Advisory
Council on Adult Education
established, 5 percent
administrative cost authorized.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania*Pennsylvania Association for
Retarded Children, along with
parents of children with mild to
severe disabilities, sued the state
and won their case to establish a
free and appropriate education
(FAPE) for all children with mental
retardation between the ages the
ages of 6 and 21 in Pennsylvania.
Mills v. District of Columbia Board of EducationThe Mills suit brought on behalf of
over 18,000 children in the District,
based on the 14th amendment and
claimed that children with disabilities
were excluded from public education
without due process.
Rehabilitation ActThe Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as Amended (Rehab Act) prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs conducted by federal agencies, in programs receiving federal financial assistance, in federal employment and in the employment practices of federal contractors.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act Amendments of 1974Appropriate education for all children with
disabilities. Community school program
was added, State allotment revised, State
plan expanded to include institutionalized
adults, Cap on adult secondary education
at 20 percent, Provided for bilingual adult
education,15 percent for special projects
and teacher training, Special projects for
the elderly, State advisory councils could
be established and maintained, National
Advisory Council on Adult Education to
include limited English-speaking
Education for All Handicapped Children“specific learning disabilities” was
recognized and added as a new
disability category in The Education
for All Handicapped Children Act of
1975. the EAHCA was intended to
provide administrators with proof of
compliance, teachers with formalized
plans, parents with a voice, and
students with an appropriate
education. Along with assurances of
individualized educational planning,
and education in the least restrictive
Board of Education v. RowleyThe Act requires participating states to
educate handicapped children with non-handicapped children whenever possible.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1983 Roncker v WalterThis law allows for federal funding to create parent training and information centers so that parents could learn how to protect the rights that are guaranteed to their child. Also provided financial incentives to expand services for children from birth to age 3 and the initiatives for transition services from school to adult living for students with disabilities.
Aguilar v. Felton & Burlington School Committee v. Dep of Ed. Of MassachusettsNew York City uses federal
funds received under the Title I
program of the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act of 1965
to pay the salaries of public
school employees who teach in
parochial schools in the city. That
program authorized federal
financial assistance to local
educational institutions to meet
the needs of educationally
deprived children from lowincome families. *BurlingtonTuition reimbursement for private
Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1986The law makes a requirement for states that offer interdisciplinary educational services to disabled toddlers, infants, and their families to receive financial grants. These financial grants act as incentives for states to provide for children from birth to age 2 that have disabilities.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act Amendments of 1990 & Americans with Disabilities Act*EHA named changed to Individuals
with Disabilities Act (IDEA). It
guarantees equal opportunity for
individuals with disabilities in
State and local government services,
and telecommunications. *P.L. 101-
336 Americans with Disabilities Act
prevents discrimination based on
Oberti and Rachel H. & Florence County S.D. four v. Carter & Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills S.D.Oberti and Rachel H. (Educating
in regular classrooms) The central
issue in this case concerns the
appropriateness of an IEP which
recommended placement of the
child in a "segregated" program
outside the child's "home" district.
Cases are proponents of the least
restrictive environment. *Florence
*Zobrest-Establised clause in
Poolaw v. BishopPoolaw- Requirement
that schools provide
tailored to the needs of
each child with
disabilities must be
Telecommunications Act of 1996*Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 mandates
that telecommunications equipment and services - including cell
phones and plans - are provided so that someone with a disability
can use them
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments 0f 1997This most recent legislation to address students
with disabilities amends and reauthorizes IDEA.
One change was parent participation. Parents‟
right to be involved in decision making was
significantly expanded. With IDEA came Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), which says says that children who receive special ed should learn in the least restrictive environment. With that came mainstreaming, putting a child with special ed needs in the general education classroom for some or most of the day.
Children's Health ActThe Children's Health Act of 2000 expands, intensifies, and coordinates research, prevention, and treatment activities for diseases and conditions having a disproportionate or significant impact on children, including autism, diabetes, asthma, hearing loss, epilepsy, traumatic brain injuries, infant mortality, lead poisoning, and oral health.
President's Commission on Excellence in Special EducationPresident George Bush established a Commission on Excellence in Special Education to collect information and study issues related to Federal, State, and local special education programs with the goal of recommending policies for improving the education performance of students with disabilities.
No Child Left Behind ActPresident George Bush signed the No Child Left Behind
Act (NCLB). This act reauthorized and
amended federal education programs
established under the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965.
Assistive Technology Act & Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement ActThe "Tech Act," as it is sometimes
called, funds 56 state programs
designed to address the assistive
technology needs of individuals
with disabilities. *IDEA is
reauthorized and aligned with
NCLB. The revision included early
assessment, early intervention,
Universal Design for Learning, and