Legislative History of Special Education

  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    he 14th Amendment was adopted into the US Constitution. This amendment confirmed that all people should be treated equal.
  • Department of Special Education

    Department of Special Education
    Department of Special Education was established in the U. S. Office of Education
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Supreme Court rules that segregation in educational institutions is unconstitutional.Segregation of children and persons for any reason is in fact NOT equal.

    This landmark legal ruling would essentially begin the movement for equality in special education and for individuals with special needs.
  • Bureau of Education

    Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (BEH) is organized and replaces DHCY within the U.S. Office of Education
  • First Responders Acts

    First Responders Acts
    Training of Professional Personnel Act of 1959 :Help train leaders to educate children with mental retardation;
    Captioned Films Acts of 1958: Training provisions for teachers of students with mental retardation
    Captioned Films Acts of 1961:Supported the production and distribution of accessible films
    Teachers of the Deaf Act of 1961: Trained instructional personnel for children who were deaf or hard of hearing. 1961: President JFK created a committee on Mental Retardation 1961
  • Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Learning Disabilities Association of America
    Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD) held its first conference in Chicago (circa 1988, this group changed its name to Learning Disabilities Association of America)
  • DHCY

    DHCY
    Division of Handicapped Children and Youth (DHCY) is formed in U. S. Office of Education
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
    Provided federal money to states in order to improve opportunities for students who were disadvantaged (including children with disabilities.) The goal of ESEA was equal access to education for all students, even those impacted by poverty.
  • Diana v. State Board of Education

    Diana v. State Board of Education
    Helped fix misclassification of students in special education. This case prevented the use of standardized tests for evaluating students and classifying them into special education when tests were not completed in the student's native language
  • Education of the Handicapped Act

    Education of the Handicapped Act
    Provide state grants to help expand education programs for students with disabilities. Federal government money was given to schools to help train special education teachers better.
  • PARC v. Commonwealth of PA

    PARC v. Commonwealth of PA
    Students with mental retardation were being denied their constitutional right to equal protection under the law. The Courts ruled that students with mental retardation had to be granted an education similar or equal to their non-disabled peers. The term FAP was established; requiring schools to provide a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). Every child was guaranteed free public education; parents given due process before change in plan.
  • Mills v. Board of Education

    Mills v. Board of Education
    Since segregation was deemed unconstitutional, it also is unconstitutional to deny students with disabilities an education. This case claimed that students with disabilities were being excluded from school. This case made the needs of the child come before fiscal restraints from the school. This case established due process procedures to ensure all students disabled or non-disabled equal protection under the law.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    Is a federal anti-discrimination law that protect ALL people with a disability that impairs one or more major life activities (learning is one.) This act prohibits discrimination in ANY program that receives federal dollars; in additions to providing accommodations o remove discriminatory barriers.
  • Education Amendments

    Included rights from PARC v. Commonwealth of PA and Mills v. Board of Education in law
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    Federal funding was provided to those who promised to educate students with disabilities. This acted demanded that schools to develop an Individualized Education Plan (IEP.)
  • Armstrong v. Kline

    Armstrong v. Kline
    Parents of student noticed their children in special education began to regress during summer break. The Courts ruled in favor of plantiffs and brought forth the extended school year. Extended School Year (ESY) is available to children with disabilities
  • Hendrick Hudson School v. Rowley

    Hendrick Hudson School v. Rowley
    Introduction of the term FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education
    School was sued due to interpreter being taken away from deaf student. The Courts ruled in favor of school because Amy Rowley was succeeding without the interpreter. Case offered a new interpretation of FAPE. A more concise definition of FAPE was introduced, and clarified that students don't have to have maximum support but enough to receive educational benefits.
  • Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Amendment

    Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Amendment
    Financial incentives were created for education children birth-2 using early intervention methods. This amendment required individuals Family Service Plans for children and families. Additionally, the age of eligibility for special education services was lowered to age 3.
  • The Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986

    The Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986
    This law gave parents of children with disabilities more say in the development of their child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP.). Additionally, parents were able to recover attorney fees if they won in a court case or hearing. Also moving forward it was now a requirement to discuss fees with a lawyer prior to trial.
  • Timothy W v. Rochester School District

    Timothy W v. Rochester School District
    Student was denied special education services because the school felt his disability was "too severe" to benefit. This case led to a Zero-rejection policy. Schools could not deny a child special education services, no matter how severe their disabilities are
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990

    Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990
    The Individuals with Disabilities Act was the new name for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.
    This act added traumatic brain injury and autism as new categories of disability. It added the transition element for students age 16 or older.
  • American with Disabilities Act

    American with Disabilities Act
    A civil rights law to prohibit discrimination solely on the basis of disability in employment, public services, and accommodations.
    "Any individual with a disability who: (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more life activities; or (2) has a record of such impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. Further, the person must be qualified for the program, service, or job".
  • The Idea Amendments of 1997

    The Idea Amendments of 1997
    The goal was to improve the effectiveness of special education by requiring demonstrable improvement in the educational achievements of students with disabilities. This amendment changed the IEP team, added new components, reorganized the structure of IDEA and began requiring states to offer intervention efforts to parents before due process hearings.
  • No Child Left Behind Act of 2002

    No Child Left Behind Act of 2002
    This act was the reaction to the low academic achievement of American students. It sought out to hold the government responsible for the academic success or lack there of of students.Increase standardized testing began.
    Very controversial law!
  • IDEA Improvement Act of 2004

    IDEA Improvement Act of 2004
    Gave a definition to "highly qualified" special education teachers. It
    encouraged the use of the RTI model in classrooms and removed short term goals in IEP's except for those with severe disabilities
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 ensures that #AllKidsMatter. This act end the 13 years of NCLB. It includes serious protections for vulnerable students. And it creates important leverage for parents, communities, and advocates to continue their push for equity and accountability for all students.
  • Endrew F v. Douglas County School District

    Endrew F v. Douglas County School District
    Parents sued school for tuition to a private school because the school was unable to provide a "meaningful education." Due to confusion with terminology in courts, it led to the debate of what schools are required to provide.
    Ruled in favor a higher standard of education for students with disabilities