Special Education Timeline

  • ARC was Established

    Parents of children diagnosed with mental retardation established Association for Retarded Citizens. Members helped educate the American public about the mentally handicapped and related developmental disabilities to combat the stigma associated with these disabilities. ARC advocates for the mentally handicapped and related disabilities to ensure intervention services that nurture growth, development, and community collaboration. (National Consortium on Leadership and Disability for Youth, 2007)
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Court ruling to end segregation of school because discriminating against civil rights. (McBride, 2006)
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

    Congress adds Title VI to this act which creates the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). This amendment pioneered the upcoming legislation of federal and state laws soon to be created mandating all public education facilities are obligated to teach and provide an education to all individuals with disabilities. (Peterson, 2007)
  • Architectural Barriers Act of 1968

    Mandating that all buildings that receive any form of federal funding must be altered or designed to allow accessibility for individuals with disabilities. (National Consortium on Leadership and Disability for Youth, 2007)
  • PARC v. The Commonwealth of PA

    Lawsuit that established the legal rights of mentally handicapped students to be educated by their free public school systems up to age 21. (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996)
  • Mills v. Board of Education

    Landmark ruling which declared all public school systems must educate and provide resources to all disabled students. Lack of having enough economic resources was considered intolerable as an excuse for not educating students with any disability. (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996)
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 mandates via federal law that public entities, including universities, public agencies, or institutions that receive federal funding are not to discriminate against any individual based on a disability. (Peterson, 2007)
  • The Education Amendments of 1974

    Amendment stated that all students with disabilities are provided with vocational services. (Nelson & Elliot, 2009)
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    Act allowing parents/guardians to have full access to all academic records and information regarding their child. (Peterson, 2007)
  • (EAHCA) The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142)

    -Later transforming into the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    -In 1975 when this law was signed it guaranteed a free, appropriate, public education for all children with disabilities in the least restricted environment (LRE). (National Consortium on Leadership and Disability for Youth, 2007)
  • Perkins Act (Vocational Education Act of 1984)

    This law stated that individuals with disabilities must be provided equal access to vocational education as their nondisabled peers. (National Association of Special Education Teachers, 2006)
  • EAHCA is Amended to Include Handicapped Children's Protection Act

    Amendment stated the rights of parents and children with disabilities have specific legal rights under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and Section 504. (Peterson, 2007)
  • Honig v. Doe

    Court case that established the special education students are not allowed to be withheld from school because of behavioral issues associated with their disability. (HONIG, California Superintendent of Public Instruction v. DOE, et al., 1988)
  • Technology -Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988

    This law provided funding for each state to meet the mandates necessary for training and consumer awareness of assistive technology (AT) for persons with disabilities. (Berven & Blanck, 1999)
  • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

    IDEA implemented FAPE basic criteria for all schools to individualize a student's educational needs to specifically align with the general education grade level curriculum with appropriate accommodations. (Wright & Wright, 2014)
  • American with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    Federal Civil Rights law prohibiting discriminating against persons with disabilities. (Indiana Protection and Advocacy Services, 2014)
  • ADA Amendment

    Section 504 added public accommodations, employment, transportation, and telecommunications to act. (Indiana Protection and Advocacy Services, 2014)
  • EAHCA renamed IDEA

    The 1975 Education of All Handicapped Children Act had been renamed IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (Peterson, 2007)
  • IDEA Amendent of 1997

    -Strengthened rights for students with disabilities through extension of LRE (Peterson, 2007)
    - required general education teachers to be part of the IEP Team. (Peterson, 2007)
    -required special education students to be included in all state wide assessment testing. (Peterson, 2007)
    -Increased the mainstreaming of visually and hearing impaired students into the general education setting through utilizing more AT devices to bridge the gaps in their disabilities. (Bauer, 2005)
  • Section 508 of the The Reauthorized Rehabilitation Act of 1998

    Requires Federal Agencies to have electronic and information technology that is accessible to individuals with a variety of disabilties. This was the first federal standard for the internet. This helps enforce the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 by creating guidelines for obtaining the federal funding. (Center for Persons with Disabilities, 2013)

    Federal law (NCLB) establishes changes in the role the government plays in the k-12 education system nationally. The focus was on achievement measured through success of standardized assessment. Four main reform objects consist of the following:
    DIRECT QUOTE.......
    "» stronger accountability for results,
    » increased flexibility and local control,
    » expanded options for parents, and
    » an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work" (Ocean County Vocational Technical School, 2014)
  • 6 Principles of IDEA Amended

    -State and local governments are to implement more standards of accountability regarding data in special education. School districts are required to develop an RTI process to help facilitate interventions and stream line the special education process. (Peterson, 2007)
    6 Principles of IDEA as Amendented 2004 1- Free Appropriate Public Education
    2 Appropriate Evaluation
    3 Zero Rejection
    4 Least Restrictive Environment
    5 Parental Participation
    6 Procedural Safeguards
    (Saleh, 2014)
  • ADA Amendments of 2008

    These amendments where created to make the definition of the word "disability" clearer to help clarify what is specifically covered under the ADA Act. (Indiana Protection and Advocacy Services, 2014)
  • Rosa's Law

    President Obama signed legislation requiring federal and state governments to terminate the use of the phrase "mental retardation" in all written and formal documents with the term "intellectual disability." The change in terminology does not affect the rights of individuals with disabilities, but liberates them from the inappropriate connotations associated with the term "mentally retarded." (Trudel, 2013)