History of Special Education

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    Timeline of events and people that have shaped special education.

    Sources include: FRIEND, MARILYN P., "Special education: contemporary perspectives for school professionals", 5th ed., Pearson, 2018, pp. 6-7. MOCK, DEVERY R., et al. "Special Education." Encyclopedia of Education, edited by James W. Guthrie, 2nd ed., vol. 6, Macmillan Reference USA, 2002, pp. 2278-2295. World History in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3403200572/UHIC?u=oldt1017&xid=ae3ce8ec. Accessed 13 Jan. 2018. Images from public domain and stock photos.
  • Braidwood's Academy for the Deaf and Dumb Started

    Braidwood's Academy for the Deaf and Dumb was started in 1760 in Scotland when Thomas Braidwood, a math school owner, was asked to educate a deaf child. Content: https://www.disability.co.uk/sites/default/files/resources/B.pdf
  • Itard works with "feral child"

    French physician Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard is hired to work with a deaf and mute 12-year-old child found living like an animal. [Friend, 2018]
  • The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons Opened

    The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons Opened
    The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons (later named the American School for the Deaf) was opened in Hartford, Connecticut with Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet as its first principal. Content: https://connecticuthistory.org/gallaudets-vision-advances-deaf-education/ Photo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US-CT(1891)_p125_HARTFORD,_DEAF_AND_DUMB_ASYLUM.jpg (Public Domain)
  • New England Asylum for the Blind Opens

    New England Asylum for the Blind Opens
    The New England Asylum for the Blind (a.k.a. the Perkins Institution / School for the Blind) was opened in 1832 and Samuel Howe served as its first director. The school is famous for educating Laura Bridgman, a deafblind child. Anne Sullivan, a Perkins graduate, taught another famous Perkins student, Helen Keller. Content: http://www.perkins.org/history/legacy/school-development Photo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Perkins_new_logo_color_-_Perkins_School_for_the_Blind.png (CC3.0)
  • Braille Code is Published

    Braille Code is Published
    The Braille Code, a manner of printing raised dots to be read by fingers enabling the blind to read, was published in 1834 from the work of Louis Braille. Content: http://brailleplus.net/articles-and-publications/a-short-history-of-braille/ Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22Braille%22_in_Braille.png (Public Domain)
  • The Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Youth Founded

    The Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Youth was founded by Dr. Samuel Howe to educate children with intellectual disabilities in Boston in 1848. Content: https://mn.gov/mnddc/parallels/four/4b/5.html It is very notable the changes in language used to describe individuals with disabilities over time.
  • American Printing House for the Blind Founded

    The American Printing House for the Blind (APH) was founded in 1858 in Louisville, Kentucky. It provides educational, workplace, and other materials for visually impaired people. Content: http://www.aph.org/about/story/
  • Gallaudet University founded

    Gallaudet University founded
    The National Deaf Mute College, later renamed Gallaudet Univerisy, is founded in 1864. Content: Friend, 2018 Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gallaudet_univ_logo.png (Public Domain)
  • Edouard Seguin focuses on training children with diabilities

    Edouard Seguin focuses on training children with diabilities
    Edouard Seguin believed children with disabilities could become productive members of society. He developed a structured learning environment to train blind, intellectually disabled, and emotionally disabled students. He focused on positive rewards, structure, and clear instruction. Content: Friend, 2018 Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edouard_Seguin.jpg (Public Domain)
  • First Public School Special Class

    "The first public school special class was established in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1875." [Friend, 2018]
  • US Act to Promote the Education of the Blind passed

    The US Congress passed the Act to Promote the Education of the Blind in 1879, designating the American Printing House for the Blind as the official supplier of educational materials for the blind. Content: http://www.aph.org/about/story/
  • Term Special Education Introduced

    The term special education was introduced by Alexander Graham Bell. Columbia University begins formal training of teachers for the blind. Content: Friend, 2018
  • College training teachers for intellectually disabled

    Training is started at the college level for teachers of students with intellectual disabilities. Content: Friend, 2018
  • Intelligence Testing, IQ Test Basis

    Intelligence Testing, IQ Test Basis
    "Alfred Simon and Theodore Simon publish their intelligence test, the basis for modern IQ testing." Content: Friend, 2018 Images: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alfred_Binet.jpg (Public Domain) and https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theodore_Simon_ACERVO_CDPHA.jpg (Public Domain)
  • The term autism is used

    The term autism is used to describe a set of patients that were socially withdrawn. Content: https://www.parents.com/health/autism/the-history-of-autism/
  • Segregated Classes for Students with Disabilities

    Segregated classes are created for students with disabilities in public schools. The term emotional disturbance starts being used. Content: Friend, 2018
  • "Gifted" and "Mentally Retarded" Terms Show Up

    The terms gifted and mentally retarded start being used. Content: Friend, 2018
  • International Council for the Education of Exceptional Children is organized

    The International Council for the Education of Exceptional Children was formed on August 10, 1922. The Council was formed by educators that attended training at Teachers College at Columbia University. Elizabeth Farrell was the Founder and served as the first President. In 1958 it was renamed to The Council for Exceptional Children. Content: https://www.cec.sped.org/About-Us/CEC-Milestones
  • Exceptional Children journal begins publication

    The peer-reviewed journal Exceptional Children was first published in 1934. It focuses on education of children that are gifted or have disabilities. It is part of the Council for Exceptional Children. Content: https://www.questia.com/library/p367/exceptional-children
  • Highly Intelligent Children with Social Development Differences Described (Autism)

    Highly Intelligent Children with Social Development Differences Described (Autism)
    Dr. Leo Kanner described highly intelligent children with specific social development differences, later called early infantile autism. Content: Friend, 2018 and https://www.parents.com/health/autism/the-history-of-autism/ Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leo-Kanner.jpeg (Public Domain)
  • Asperger details characteristics for syndrome

    Dr. Asperger details "milder autism" characteristics in children that became known as Asperger's Syndrome. Content: Friend, 2018 and https://www.parents.com/health/autism/the-history-of-autism/
  • Willowbrook State School Opened

    Willowbrook State School Opened
    Willowbrook State School in NY opened in 1947 for children with mental and physical disabilities. Full capacity of 4,000 was reached in 1955 and was overcrowded to 6,200 by 1969. Details of vast amounts of physical, sexual, and medical abuse over the years are abhorrent. Content: https://timeline.com/willowbrook-the-institution-that-shocked-a-nation-into-changing-its-laws-c847acb44e0d Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Willowbrook_State_School_(NYPL_b15279351-105038).tiff (PD)
  • National Association for Retarded Citizens Organized

    The National Association for Retarded Citizens, now ARC/USA, was organized in 1950 as a parent advocacy group for individuals with disabilities. Content: http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=1a2e4cb5196431024dab0b870125ad9a&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3403200572&userGroupName=oldt1017&jsid=cda4e4f5694bb72688741c6ea52911e0
  • Institute for Research on Exceptional Children Established

    The Institute for Research on Exceptional Children was established at the University of Illinois in 1952. The Institute was established to develop "research on physically and mentally handicapped children; the study of coordinating public welfare services, the study of gifted children and offering advanced programs of study." Content: https://archives.library.illinois.edu/archon/?p=creators/creator&id=174
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    The US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education ruled that "separate but equal" was not equal and violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The case specifically dealt with racial minorities, but had implications for other groups as well, such as students with disabilities. Content: https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483 Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Judgment,_Brown_v._Board_of_Education,_05311955.gif (Public Domain)
  • The Association for Children with Learning Disabilities Organized

    The Association for Children with Learning Disabilities was organized in 1963 as a parent advocacy group for children with disabilities. Content: http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=1a2e4cb5196431024dab0b870125ad9a&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3403200572&userGroupName=oldt1017&jsid=cda4e4f5694bb72688741c6ea52911e0
  • Term Learning Disabilities Used

    The term learning disabilities was introduced by Samuel Kirk. Content: Friend, 2018
  • Special Education included in Title VII of ESEA

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was passed by Congress in 1965 and amended in 1968 with Title VII (changed from Title VI) to include provisions for special education. It included dissemination of special education material, recruitment of personnel, services for deaf and blind children, and other programs. Content: http://www.avoiceonline.org/edpol/timeline.html
  • Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act addresses Disabilities

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 mandates free appropriate public education by way of prohibiting institutions that receive federal funding from discriminating based on disability. Content: https://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/sec504.htm
  • Education For All Handicapped Children Act Passed by Congress

    The Education For All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) and the Protection and Advocacy System of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act were both passed by the US Congress in 1975. Both were influenced by lessons learned from the failure of Willowbrook. Content: https://timeline.com/willowbrook-the-institution-that-shocked-a-nation-into-changing-its-laws-c847acb44e0d
  • Autism shown to have genetic and brain development causes

    "Research on twins finds that autism is largely caused by genetics and biological differences in brain development." Content: https://www.parents.com/health/autism/the-history-of-autism/
  • IDEA (EAHCA amended and renamed) and ADA are born

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) is amended and renamed to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990. The law details provisions requiring appropriate education for students with disabilities, sets expectations of employment and independent living training, provides rights under the law and more. The Americans with Disabilities Act is also created. Content: https://www.washington.edu/doit/what-individuals-disabilities-education-act
  • IDEA is Amended

    IDEA is amended relating to the role of general education teachers, discipline, and transition services. Content: Friend, 2018
  • No Child Left Behind Enacted

    No Child Left Behind Enacted
    The No Child Left Behind Act was passed by Congress in 2003. It requires all students be taught by highly qualified educators, including special education students. This resulted in more inclusion instruction and less self-contained classes. Content: Field, 2018 Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nochild.jpg (Public Domain)
  • IDEA is Reauthorized; Highly Qualified SpEd Teachers

    IDEA was reauthorized in 2004 through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. It increased standards for teaching students with disabilities, defined highly qualified for special education teachers, and addressed parent involvement and discipline. It mandated changes to how IEPs are handled. Content: Friend, 2018
  • Federal Change from Mental Retardation to Intellectual Disability

    Rosa's Law was signed, changing federal terminology to use intellectual disability instead of mental retardation. Content: Friend, 2018
  • The Every Student Succeeds Act Enacted

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was enacted in 2015 as a revision of the No Child Left Behind Act. The focus was on preparing all students for moving on to career or college, including underserved students. It requires that all students be educated at a high standard to prepare them for college or career. Content: https://www.ed.gov/essa?src=rn