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History of Intellectual Disability (IntD)

By lmg1115
  • 100

    Ancient Greeks and Romans

    2500 BC Ancient civilizations believed it was a punishment from the Gods to have a disability. they felt these individuals were a burden on society and often mistreated them or left them to die.
  • 384

    Aristotle

    384-322 BC
    Aristotle declared that all mentally retarded should be killed.
  • 400

    Hippocrates

    400BC
    The Greek physician Hippocrates treats mental disorders as diseases to be understood in terms of disturbed physiology,
  • Period: 500 to

    Care and Refuge for those with intellectual disabilities

    Care and asylum for those with mental disabilities was provided by families and the church (in monasteries and other religious communities), focusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter and clothing. Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time.
  • Jun 1, 1407

    1st Institution in Europe

    Bedlam began admitting patients for mental illness
  • IntD as a disease

    Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disabilities as a disease. He believed that it was caused by structural problems in the brain. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life.
  • Father of Special Education

    Educated young, feral boy with an intensive, individualized educational program because he believed he could learn. This was the first example of an IEP, and the beginning of modern special education.
  • Rise of Institutions

    The Perkins Institution in Boston was founded by Samuel Gridley Howe. It was the first residential institution for people with mental retardation. Over the next century, hundreds of thousands of developmentally disabled children and adults were be institutionalized, many for their entire lives.
  • Hereditity Genius

    Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, published Hereditary Genius in 1869, which established a theoretical basis for the heritability of ID and provided a foundation for the eugenics movement
  • AAIDD founded

    Edouard Seguin founded the American Association of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
  • Period: to

    Eugenics Movement in the U.S.

    Movement to force sterilization on the mentally disabled and institutionalized so that the gene pool was preserved.
  • First IQ test

    Alfred Binet produced the first standardized test for measuring intelligence in children.
  • IQ Classification Scale

    Goddard introduced a classification scale for IQ severity. Goddard used the terms moron for those with an IQ of 51-70, imbecile for those with an IQ of 26-50, and idiot for those with an IQ of 0-25 for categories of increasing impairment. T
  • CEC Founded

    The Council for Exceptional Children is Founded
  • ARC Formed

    The National Association for Retarded Children (now know as ARC) formed
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education, ruled that seperate but equal facilities for blacks and whites were inherently unequal. Paved the way for rights for children with disabilities to be educated alongside their nondisabled peers
  • President's Panel on MR

    President John F. Kennedy convenes the President's Panel on Mental Retardation
  • Special Olympics

    Eunice Kennedy Shriver founds the Special Olympics
  • Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act

    Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963.
  • Maternal and Child Health and Mental Retardation Planning Amendments of 1963

    Maternal and Child Health and Mental Retardation Planning Amendments of 1963 signed by President Kennedy
  • Civil Rights Act Passed

    Civil Rights Act passed outlawing discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, and creed. Gender and disability would later be added
  • ESEA of 1965

    Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965 (ESEA) was signed into law in 1965 by President Lyndon Baines Johnson, who believed that "full educational opportunity" should be "our first national goal."
  • PCPID established

    President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities (PCPID)
  • Wolf Wolfensberger's seminal work "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models"

    Wolf Wolfensberger's seminal work "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models", Wolfensberger argued that this dehumanization, and the segregated institutions that result from it, ignored the potential productive contributions that all people can make to society
  • Expanding Services and Coverage

    Developmental Disabilities Services and Facilities Construction Amendments of 1970, a law that introduced the term “developmental disability” and expanded the population covered under the law beyond individuals with mental retardation to include individuals with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and certain other neurological conditions that originate before the age of 18.
  • Wyatt v. Stickney

    The U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama decided in Wyatt v. Stickney that people in residential state schools and institutions have a constitutional right “to receive such individual treatment as (would) give them a realistic opportunity to be cured or to improve his or her mental condition.” Disabled people were longer to be locked away in institutions without treatment or education.
  • Mills v. Board of Education

    Disabled students could not be excluded from public school
  • PARC v. Pennsylvania

    Established the right to an education for all children with disabilities. That case also established the standard that each child must be offered an individualized education and that children should be placed in the least restrictive environment possible. - See more at: http://www.pilcop.org/pennsylvania-association-for-retarded-citizens-parc-v-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania/#sthash.OBv4flWo.dpuf
  • Section 504

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities. Section 504 ensures that the child with a disability has equal access to an education.
  • Redefining Developmental Disabilities and Coverage

    1975 the Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act defined developmental disability to include specific conditions (e.g., mental retardation and other conditions closely related to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, and dyslexia) that originate prior to age 18, are expected to continue indefinitely, and that constitute a substantial handicap.
  • EAHCA Signed

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) was signed into law, requiring all public schools accepting federal funds to provide equal access to education for children with physical and mental disabilities.
  • Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act

    The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) of 1980 intended to protect the rights of people in state or local correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental health facilities and institutions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • EAHCA to IDEA

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act is amended and renamed the Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
  • Developmental Disabilities Bill of Rights

    The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 was signed to assure that individuals with developmental disabilities and their families participate in the design of and have access to needed community services, individualized supports, and other forms of assistance that promote self-determination, independence, productivity, and integration and inclusion in all facets of community life
  • IDEA Reauthorized

    The reauthorization of IDEA in 2004 revised the statute to align with the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).
  • AAMR to AAID

    The American Association of Mental Retardation changes its name to the Americana Association of Intellectual Disability
  • Rosa's Law

    President Barack Obama signed Rosa's Law which changed the term "Mental Retardation or Mentally Redarded" to Intellectually Disabled.