History of Special Education

  • Brown vs The Board of Education

    This landmark case overturned the decision of Plessy vs Ferguson saying that "Separation is not equal." This case brought attention to black v white in schools and special needs students v general educations students. This case encourage the form of advocacy groups to help the provide the public about the need of special education programs
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the landmark legislation prohibiting discrimination in several areas including housing, employment, and education. Civil rights laws represent a national commitment to end discrimination in education. The laws mandate bringing the formerly excluded into the mainstream of American education. And these laws also are designed to help deliver the promise that every individual has the right to develop his or her talents to the fullest.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)

    ESEA did not make it law to educate students with disabilities, but get grants to schools and institution to help put in place special education programs.
  • PARC vs Commonwealth of PA

    Sided in favor of students with intellectual and learning disabilities in state ran institutions. PARC vs PA called for students with disabilities to placed in publicly funded schools settings that met their individual needs based on evaluation.
  • Mills vs Board of Education

    The District Court of the District of Columbia students classified a exceptional. This includes mental and learning disabilities and behavioral issues. This ruling made it unlawful for DC board of education to deny individuals access to publicly funded educational opportunity.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance, and set the stage for enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This include FAPE and LRE. Students are eligible when they have physical or mental disability that inhibits their learning experience.
  • The Education for All handicapped Children's Act (PL 94-142)(1975)

    This act made sure all students with disabilities are educated in public schools. EAHCA included providing free education, special education for 3-21, supplemental services, due process, zero reject, and LRE.
  • Larry P. v. Riles

    Larry P. v. Riles was an important case in determining which children require special attention and which do not. The court found that IQ tests could not be used as a sole indicator and showed the importance of using multiple tools to assess a child's needs.
  • Armstrong v. Kline

    Parents of student noticed their children in special education began to regress during summer break. It ruled in favor of plantiffs and brought forth the extended school year. ESY is available to children with disabilities.
  • Hendrick Hudson School vs Rowley

    A landmark case that designed the Rowley two part test in determining if FAPE is being met according to a student's IEP. The two part test consists of ask if the school is fulfilling requirements of IDEA and is the IEP developed through the procedures of IDEA. If both questions are answered yes then FAPE and IDEA are being met.
  • Irving Independent School District v. Tatro

    The court reiterated that eligible children must be identified as having disabilities in order to receive special education services. The court acknowledged that school officials are required to supply only those services that are necessary to enable children to benefit from special education, regardless of how easily school nurses or laypersons could provide the needed services. The court noted that school nursing services do not have to be provided if they must be performed by a physician.
  • Burlington School Committee vs DOE

    Burlington School Committee v. Massachusetts Department of Education 471 U.S. 359 (1985) was a Supreme Court case in which it was ruled that parents have a right to reimbursement for private school tuition if the public education does not provide a free and appropriate public education
  • EHA Amendment (1986)

    Public Law 99-457 is the result of amendments by the United States Congress, in 1986, to the Education of the Handicapped Act. Public Law 99-457 states to make available appropriate and free public education to children ages 3 through 5 who are disable
  • Honig v. Doe.

    The U.S. Supreme Court's first and only case on the topic, were the acceptable limits of disciplining students with disabilities under the then Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA), now the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA).
  • Danny R.R. vs State Board of Education

    This landmark case resulted in the application of the Daniel two-part test. The test consist of two parts: 1. Can education in the general education classroom with supplementary aids and services be achieved satisfactory?, 2. If a student is placed in a more restrictive setting, is the student integrated to the maximum extent appropriate? If the school meets both requirements then the schools obligation, under IDEA, is fulfilled.
  • Board of Education in Sacramento CA vs Holland

    This court case lead to inclusion for students of special needs. They are to be place in a regular education class with an IEP, special education teacher or teacher assistant.
  • EHA Amendment (1990)

    In 1990, the United States Congress reauthorized EHA and changed the title to IDEA (Public Law No. 94-142). Overall, the goal of IDEA is to provide children with disabilities the same opportunity for education as those students .
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places that are open to the general public. The purpose of the law is to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else.
  • Oberti vs Board of Education

    Oberti v. Board of Education, established inclusion with supplementary aids and services as the presumption because it is a fundamental value of the right to public education for children with disabilities.
  • Gaskin vs Commonwealth of PA

    The main focus of the settlement is to ensure that school districts comply with existing federal laws, specifically around issues of "Least Restrictive Environment" (LRE).
  • Cedar Rapids Community School District vs Garrett F

    Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled (7–2) that the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires school boards to provide continuous nursing services to disabled students who need them during the school day.
  • EHA/IDEA Amendement (1997)

    IDEA Amendments of 1997 (PL 105-17) supported initiatives for transition services from high school to adult living
  • No Child Left Behind

    This law states the students should be proficient in the areas of reading and math by 2014.
  • IDEA Amendment

    A law that mandates equity, accountability and excellence in education for children with disabilities.
  • Compulsory attendance laws

    Compulsory education laws require children to attend a public or state-accredited private school for a certain period of time. There are certain exceptions, most notably homeschooling, but virtually all states have mandates for when children must begin school and how old they must be before dropping out.