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History of Special Education: Cultural Perspectives and Policy

  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to Jan 1, 1200

    Disabled People

  • Period: Jan 1, 1200 to Jan 1, 1450

    Disabled People

  • Period: Jan 1, 1450 to

    Disabled People

  • Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris

    Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris
    World's first free school for the deaf
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    Disabled People

  • The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons

    The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons
    The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons was opened. A surgeon, Mason Fitch Cogswell, and lawyer and politician, Sylvester Gilbert, men with deaf children, were instrumental in starting this school.
  • New England Asylum for the Blind

    New England Asylum for the Blind
    The New England Asylum for the Blind was started by Samuel Gridley Howe. Howe, a veteran in the Greek war for independence was an advocate for people with visual modalities.
  • First Private School for Intellectually Disabled

    First Private School for Intellectually Disabled
    Started by Édouard Séguin
  • Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons

    Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons
    AAIDD
    Oldest organization developed for research in intellectual & developmental disabilities. Known today as American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
  • Idiots Act

    Idiots Act
    Act that intended to provide facilities for the care and education of the intellectually disabled.
  • The Mental Deficiency Act

    The Mental Deficiency Act
    Replaced the Idiots Act. This allowed parents to relinquish rights of disabled children and have them placed under guardianship in facilities
  • Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)

    Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
    Council for Exceptional Children
    Organization working world-wide to improve education for students with disabilities, gifts and special talents.
  • The Council for the Retarded Child in Cuyahoga County (Ohio)

    The Council for the Retarded Child in Cuyahoga County (Ohio)
    Grassroots parents group formed to help disabled children in the area who were excluded from public schools.
  • United Cerebral Palsy (UCP)

    United Cerebral Palsy (UCP)
    UCP History Grassroots organization founded by Leonard H. Goldenson, Isabelle Goldenson, Jack Hausman, and Ethel Hausman to improve the quality of life for individuals with cerebral palsy. They focused on improving local services and today the organization is a large health organization.
  • Muscular Dystrophy Aassociation (MDA)

    Muscular Dystrophy Aassociation (MDA)
    Organization Website The organization was founded by Paul Cohen and other individuals affected by muscular dystrophy. The organization gained attention with the help of celebrity spokespeople. The most well-known is Jerry Lewis, who hosted MDA telethons.
  • National Association for Retarded Children (NARC)

    National Association for Retarded Children (NARC)
    ARC Advocacy History National Association for Retarded Children (NARC) founded. In 1973 In 1992 the name was changed to The Arc of the United States (The Arc). When founded, the organization raised money to be used to research intellectual and developmental disabilities.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Five court cases against different boards of education were brought to the Supreme Court, where they were consolidated and known as Brown v. Board of Education. The ruling stated it was constitutional to segregate students in public schools. This ruling paved the road for improving rights of students with disabilities.
  • The President's Panel on Mental Retardation

    The President's Panel on Mental Retardation
    JFK Library John F. Kennedy created The President's Panel on Mental Retardation. His focus was on cause and prevention. He organized the group with top scientists, doctors and others in the field.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    Public Law signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson who believed in educational opportunities for everyone. This act provided funding for low-income families and paved the road for future funding for students of need.
  • Special Olympics

    Special Olympics
    Special Olympics Website Eunice Shriver founded the Special Olympics. She wanted kids with a disability to have a place to play. The organization started as day camps and grew into the organization we know today.
  • Students with Disabilities in School

    Students with Disabilities in School
    Despite policy and cultural shifts in thinking, there are still a small number of students with disabilities in public schools. The average was one in five students were attending public schools.
  • PARC v the Commonwealth of PA

    PARC v the Commonwealth of PA
    The Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania case decided children with mental retardation should be allowed to receive education in the public school setting. This case paved the road for students with disabilities to be schooled in the public school setting.
  • Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia decided all children have the right to a free and public education. This case laid the groundwork for the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA).
  • Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)

    Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)
    The act prohibits discrimination in programs funded by the federal government. Individuals with disabilities are covered under section 504.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
    Overview of the Law A law passed by President Gerald Ford mandating all students with disabilities will receive an appropriate and free education. The law was to be in effect by September 1, 1978
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    Congress enacted the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This act guaranteed education to students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment.
  • The Rowley Decision

    The Rowley Decision
    The definition for free and adequate education in the EHA act was not clearly defined. This case decision further defined it.
  • EHA Extended

    EHA Extended
    EHA was extended to include parent training and information centers at the state level.
  • Irving Independent School District vs. Tatro

    Irving Independent School District vs. Tatro
    This case found that changing a student's catheter during school hours was covered under the EHA law under special services. Since the service took a few minutes to perform and the lay person could be trained in an hour, the student should not have to leave school for the service.
  • EHA Reauthorized

    EHA Reauthorized
    EHA was reauthorized and early intervention programs for infants and education services for preschoolers were added.
  • Honig v. Doe

    Honig v. Doe
    Honig v. Doe was a case regarding a student who was permanently suspended from school due to violent and disruptive behavior that was directly related to his disability. Under the EAH acct students with an IEP are not to be removed from school during the review and reassessment of his/her IEP. This student was allowed to go back to school.
  • Best Buddies Organization

    Best Buddies Organization
    Best Buddies Website Best Buddies was founded by Anthony K. Shriver. He wanted to provide ways for kids with and without intellectual disabilities to form meaningful relationships.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act

    The Americans with Disabilities Act
    ADA Website The Americans with Disabilities Act states persons with disabilities will be provided equal opportunities in employment, services and programs.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) replaced the EHA act. This act expands on children receiving a free and appropriate education to include the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) used to support the student's development.
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
    The No Child Left Behind Act affects what students are taught, what tests they are taking, and how teachers are trained. This law is meant to close the achievement gap.
  • IDEA 2004

    IDEA 2004
    Reauthorization of IDEA to include Response to Intervention (RTI).