Disability symbols

History of Special Education

  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    Thanks to the decision made from theU.S. Sepreme Court here, segregation on the basis of race violated equal educational opportunity. This case began the acceptance that regardless of race, gneder, religion, or disability all persons had the right to equal education. Integration in public schools was started by Brown v. Board of Education. This law states that equal treatment is the only way to protect students' constitutional rights to a free and acceptable public education.
  • President Kennady addresses Congress

    President Kennady addresses Congress
    Here in his speech addressing congress he makes key points on not only segration in the education system but also- -On supporting states to develop local facilities.
    - Further research into disabilities with Government funding.
    -Offer training and education for adults working to help educate children with handicaps. (This was a topic close to his heart because of his sister Rose being mentally handicapped.
  • Passing of PL 89-10

    Passing of PL 89-10
    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act- This is said to have been a true beginning for special education in the U.S.A. This is one of the most expansive federal education bill ever passed in our history. The bill was passed and enacted less than three months after it was introduced. It was used to address the education and as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's “War on Poverty.” It curbed the inequality of addressing educational and special needs within education for poor children.
  • Medicare and Medicaid Bill

    Medicare and Medicaid Bill
    Lyndon B. Johnson, President signs the bill titled the Social Security Act that provided care for persons with disablities.
  • Public Law 89-75. July 16, 1965

    *Not exact date* This law was then drafted to help in funding the act of inclusion of children with mental or physical disabilities into the public school system for general and specialized educational support.
  • The State Schools Act (PL 89-313)

    The State Schools Act (PL 89-313)
    PL 89-313- This act provided federal money for schools and educational institutions and also additional funding to specifically schools which were state operated and founded to allow special educational services to be provided for institutionalized or handicapped children. This law was an amendment to Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education passed earlier in the year.
  • ESEA Amendments

    PL 90-247-
    Tgis was the last of the federal legislative special education advances in the 1960's. It provided funding to improve, support, and expand programs and educational opportunities for special education services within public and vocational schools.
  • ESEA Amendments

    ESEA Amendments
    This was in part related to the cause of John F. Kennady's personal cause. This was the first beginning expansion or ESEA, it provided Regional Resource centers for support and the funding for them.
  • PL 94-142

    PL 94-142
    *NOT exact Date* The Education of the Handicapped Law-
    EAHCA OR EHA -(2 Laws) A. An appropriate and equal education for all children with disablities.
    B. Gives studens(over 18) or parents/guardians the right to full disclosure of all files and records.
    It ensured that special education services be available to children who need them, and guaranteed that decisions about services to disabled students be fair &appropriate. To establish that all special education be managed and audtied.
  • PARC vs. Commonwealth

    PARC vs. Commonwealth
    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania -In this case students with developmental disablities were being excluded from general education and services. It was through winning this case that created a new policy that all students with disabilities of any type had the right to a public supported education.
  • Mills vs. Board of Education

    Mills vs. Board of Education
    This result of this case declared that all students with disabilities have the right to public education, and that financial limits were not a factor in providing education to students. It set a standard that educational services must be made based on individual children's needs, rather than on the schools’ fiscal capabilities to provide services.
  • Willowbrook State School- Last Great Disgrace

    Willowbrook State School- Last Great Disgrace
    *Not exact Date Geraldo Rivera did an expose documentary on the Willowbrook State School.His exposé revealed horrible conditions and neglected mentally disabled children whom were being cared for and "educated" and supposebly protected under the legislative acts enacted and funded throughout the 60's. This expose changed forever the treatment and education provided by state insititions for children.
  • Section 504 and The Rehabilitation Act

    The (Vocational) Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (P.L. 93-112) The (Vocational) Rehabilitation Act (Section 504) says that any recipient of federal financial assistance must end discrimination in the offering of its services to persons with disabilities.
    Some students, not eligible for help under other special education laws, can receive help under section 504. It protects students in need of aid because of factors negatively affecting their learning/ability to function.Including allergies/athsma.
  • The Community Services Act

    The Community Services Act
    (P.L. 93-644) States that 10% of children enrolled in the Head Start program must be children with disabilities. The Head Start program is to provide comprehensive education, health, nutrition, & parent involvement services to low-income children and children with special needs or disabilites along with their their families.
  • The Developmental Disabilities Assistance/Bill of Rights Act

    The Developmental Disabilities Assistance/Bill of Rights Act
    (P.L. 94-103) Is an act which produced a "bill of rights" for persons with developmental disabilities and also funded services for individuals with developmental disabilities, it provided new funding authority for university affiliated facilities, & lastly it established a system of protection/ advocacy organizations in every state.
  • IDEA

    *Not exact date! Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was an act first passed by Congress in 1975 to make sure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education. It mandated transition services, expanded discretionary programs, and added autism to a list of children eligable for special education services.
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    (P.L. 94-142) Was put into place by President Gerald Ford,. It mandated a free & appropriate public education for all children with disabilities, the nature or severity of the child's disability aside. It is Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act. All students with disabilities must have an individual education plan (IEP) and be served in the least restrictive environment all for free.
  • First 504 Lawsuit

    The first lawsuit under Section 504 produced the second federal court decision in the country.
    The plaintiff was a student with learning disabilities who was discriminated against by being denied accommodations. Friendswood School District was made to accommodate the him by providing behavioral programming, recognizing his special needs, as well as to pay for the cost of a therapeutic program within a private school as was recommended per the plaintiff's psychiatrist in court.
  • Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley

    The first special education case ever to go to the U.S. Supreme Court. They found that students who qualify for special education services must have access to public school programs that meet all of their needs, and all programs must be supported by services which will enable all students to benefit from instruction. This case and it's ruling then gave lower courts general standards to follow when deciding what would qualify as free and appropriate public education.
  • The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments

    The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments
    Named Public Law 98-199 added the Architectural Barrier Amendment which made clear the participation of handicapped children in any/all private schools...As well as reauthorizing discretionary programs and establishing service to facilitate school to work transition with demonstration projects; It also set into play parent trainings and put into place the funding for demonstration projects and research in early intervention and early childhood.
  • Irving Independent School District v. Tatro

    The Supreme Court addressed the issue of related services. A student was rejected by her school system, her request for accomodation in the bathroom of having an adult assist her with catheterisation once daily. The Supreme Court established: when a service is necessary or the student will otherwise be barred from receiving their appropriate education and that that service is able to be provided by someone with less training than a physician, than the school system will provide the service.
  • Education of the Deaf Act of 1986

    Education of the Deaf Act of 1986
    A Commission on Education of the Deaf was put together under Title III of the Act. It consists of 12 members whom will study the quality of infant/early childhood programs, elementary, secondary, postsecondary, adult, and continuing education programs for individuals whom are deaf. Yhen, based on their findings suggestions for imporovments in all areas will be made in order to better support deaf individuals within these systems and programs.
  • Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988

    Public Law 100-50 reauthorizes major elementary and secondary education programs including: Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Bilingual Education, Math-Science Education, Magnet Schools, Impact Aid, Indian Education, Adult Education, and other smaller education programs and supports for students in need.
  • Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education

    Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education
    This is a case where a student with Down's Syndrom was denied by the school system their placement in a regular education classroom because of their disability.
    From this schools must fairly decide if placement in regular classrooms, with supplementary devices/services, can be achieved successfully. Also that if a student must be removed from general education classrooms at all that the school must fairly decide if the child has been integrated to their maximum possible extent.
  • The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments

    Now named the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, reauthorized as well as expanded discretionary programs, also mandated transition services, defined assistive technology devices/services, and recognizes autism and traumatic brain injury as categories of students whom are eligible for special education & all related support services.
  • The Americans w/Disabilities Act

    The Americans w/Disabilities Act
    This Act is based on the previous Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and was signed into law George W. Bush. Also known as the ADA, it was made to serve as a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits under certain circumstances any discrimination based on disability. With disability defined as, "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity." It was hereby that rules/regulations for students with disabilities became commonplace in all school districts.
  • Doe v. Withers

    A case emphasizing the clear meaning of the law. All general education teachers, must make a good faith efforts in order to accomodate any student with and (IEP) Individual Learning Plan if at all possible to provide required accommodations for students with disabilities when necessary. This case took plase at Grafton Highschool in Taylor County, West Virginia School system
    Here a general education teacher fails to comply with the IEP of a 16yr old student where tests must be read outloud.
  • IDEA

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 The reauthorization of IDEA was viewed as an opportunity to review, strengthen, and improve IDEA to better educate children with disabilities and enable them to achieve a quality education.
  • President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (PCESE)

    President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education (PCESE)
    President George Bush formed the Commission on Excellence in Special Education to collect information and research issues related to Federal, State, and local special education programs with the goal of recommending policies for improving the education performance of students with disabilities.
  • No Child left Behind Act of 2001

    Written but officially signed into law in 2002. It requires states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades, if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. The Act does not assert a national achievement standard; standards are set by each individual state. All students, including students with disabilities, are to be proficient in math and reading.
  • IDEA 2004 Reinactment Act

    Set to improve the standards of the original IDEA Act.
    It states that each child with a disability: students must be provided a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that prepares them for further education, employment, and independent living. Special education and related services should be designed to meet the unique learning needs of eligible children with disabilities, preschool through age 21.
  • American with Disabilities Act Amendments of 2008

    Said to be the most significant disability legislation passed" by the National Council on Disibility, the ADA Amendments of 2008 revised the definition of “disability” to more broadly include impairments that substantially limit a major life activity.
  • Obama's Blueprint for Education

    Obama's Blueprint for Education
    Obama here releases his admin's blueprint to revisie the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Department of Education states, “The blueprint challenges the nation to embrace education standards putting America on a path to global leadership. It provides incentives for states to adopt academic standards that prepare students to succeed in college &the workplace, &create accountability systems that measure student growth toward meeting the goal all children graduate &succeed in college