Special Education History and Reform in America- Interactive Timeline

Timeline created by dsullivan6
In History
  • Exclusion of students due to disability

    Exclusion of students due to disability
    If disabled students were educated in any manner, it was often at asylums (American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb). In 1893, the Massachusetts Supreme Court upheld the expulsion of a student solely due to poor academic ability (Smith, 2004; Yell, Rogers, & Rogers, 1998). This was followed by a later decision in Wisconsin to deny educating a student with cerebral palsy because he "produced a depressing" effect.
    http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/dhm/edu/essay.html?id=38
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    In this high profile case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, it was found unconstitutional for institutions of education to separate students based on race. Though this case did not specify and special education reform, the ruling had "far-reaching implications for the special education arena" (http://www2.ed.gov). This case essentially set the ground work for the belief that our constitutional law allows ALL children the right to a public education.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTGHLdr-iak
  • ESEA- The Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Bureau of Education for the Handicapped

    ESEA- The Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Bureau of Education for the Handicapped
    Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson as part of the "War on Poverty" (McLaughlin, 1975). The act called for equitable access to education and offered federal funding for students disadvantaged by poverty. From 1965 to 1968 several provisions were added, including Title VI, which created the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (now called Office of Special Education Programs, OSEP) (Jeffrey 1978).
    http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/programs/education/elementary-and-secondary-education-act-of-1965/
  • PARC vs. Pennsylvania and Mills vs. D.C. Board of Education

    PARC vs. Pennsylvania and Mills vs. D.C. Board of Education
    Students with disabilities are to be educated with peers in a publicly funded school setting to meet "their individual educational needs, based on a proper and thorough evaluation" (https://educationonline.ku.edu/community/idea-timeline, Retrieved 2017).
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtFmp3XduaQ
    http://www.rootedinrights.org/15321-revision-v1/
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act, Public Law 94- 192, President Gerald Ford

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act, Public Law 94- 192, President Gerald Ford
    Pres. Ford signed that if a state receives federal funding, they must provide equal access to education for disabled children. Each state was responsible for ensuring compliance within all their public school systems. The law gave access to all, but did not "address the degree of educational opportunity". This law has been reformed into what we currently know as IDEA. (Yell and Drasgow, 1999).
    http://study.com/academy/lesson/education-for-all-handicapped-children-act-summary-impact.html
  • EAHCA Ammendments of 1986

    EAHCA Ammendments of 1986
    President Reagan signed the Education to the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. These added early intervention for three-to five-year-olds, with programs for younger children with disabilities.The acts also allowed more access and inout from parents in the creation of IEPs (Individual Education Plans) (Yell & Drasgow, 1999).
  • Public Law 101-476- EAHCA becomes IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)- Added more respectable wording and assed more inclusive services

    Public Law 101-476- EAHCA becomes IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)- Added more respectable wording and assed more inclusive services
    This law amended and expanded EAHCA of 1975. It uses “people-first” language, replaced “handicapped children” with “individuals with disabilities” and the definition of disabilities was expanded. The law mandates special education services for children ages three to twenty-one, extends services for infants from birth to age two, and provides mandates to help those with disabilities with transition services.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individuals_with_Disabilities_Education_Act
  • IDEA Reauthorized and expanded by President Clinton- PL105-17

    IDEA Reauthorized and expanded by President Clinton- PL105-17
    President Clinton added amendments to IDEA in order to "shift focus from providing access" to "providing meaningful and measurable programs for all students with disabilities" (Hardman & Nagle, 2004). This added features we see to this day by requiring measurable annual goals, assessment and measurement of progress, invitation to parents for IEP meetings, regular education teachers are required to be members of IEP team, and mandatory reporting of goals to parents (Esteves & Rao, 2008).
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)- President George W. Bush- Education Reform Bill

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)- President George W. Bush- Education Reform Bill
    This established standardized testing for all students, even those with disabilities and calls for highly qualified teachers, even those that teach in special education classrooms (Pulliam & Van Patten, 2006). It created more inclusive structures for students with disabilities to have access to general education forums when they are able (LRE). The focus moved for results of progress standards and goals.
    http://study.com/academy/lesson/no-child-left-behind-summary-pros-cons.html
  • IDEA reauthorized- Enhanced programs and accountability at the state level- G.W. Bush

    IDEA reauthorized- Enhanced programs and accountability at the state level- G.W. Bush
    IDEA 2004 calls for teachers to find alternate ways to address and identify students with disabilities, like RTI (response to intervention), "which is the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions" (NASDE, 2006) . This looks to stop the cycle of sending low performers to special education.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act- President Obama

    Every Student Succeeds Act- President Obama
    President Obama received bipartisan support to reaffirm and expand ESEA with this act. The law aims to provide high academic standards that will prepare all student for college or careers. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2015/12/10/every-student-succeeds-act-vs-no-child-left-behind-whats-changed/77088780/
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    Overview and Impact on Curriculum

    Throughout history there has been a shift in trends on how to deal with students with disabilities and special needs programs; from ignoring and institutionalizing special education students to incorporating them into school systems as part of the general education program. This shift has forced educators to learn how to differentiate education plans to suit more diverse student populations. This timeline serves to show this shift and to acknowledge important milestones along the way.