Events, rebellions, people, and conflicts that contributed to the slavery ordeal in the South.
Restrictions on slave petitions (Gag Rule)
The House passes a resolution that postponsed any actions on slavery petitions without hearing them, and stricter versions of the gag rule are passed in congress.
Arkansas becomes the twenty fifth state, and enters the union as a slave state.
Elijah P. Lovejoy
Elijah P. Lovejoy was an American Presbyterian Minister, and Journalist who was murdered by a mob Alton, Illinois for his strong abolitionsist views on slavery.
Formation of the Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad is formally organized, and is led by slavery abolistionsit, Robert Purvis.
The 1840 Census
The results of the 1840 census show a total population of 16,987,946, including 2,482,546 slaves or 15% of the population. Slaves are considered non-existent in northern states, and as high as 55% in South Carolina and 52% in Mississippi.
Frederick Douglass's Autobiography
Former slave, Frederick Douglass publsihed his autobiography-Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. HIs utobiography explains his journey, to give the reader a visual of what life is like as a slave.
Florida becomes the 27th state, and enters the union as a slave state.
Texas becomes the 28th state and enters the union as a slave state.
Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland. She returned over 19 times and brought over 300 slaves back with her.
Compromise of 1850
Congress implemented several measures forming the Compromise of 1850. The measures included California joining the Union as a free state, the territories of New Mexico and Utah are organized with no restrictions on slavery, slave trading is abolished in the District of Columbia, effective January 1851 and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 is modified, and strengthened to allow slaveholders to retrieve slaves in northern states and free territories.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom's Cabin as a response to the pro-slavery movement. Her book becomes very popular, and gives a new perspective on slavery.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act passes Congress and overturns the Missouri Compromise opening the Northern territory to slavery. Both sides began to send settlers into the areas in an effort to influence the future status of these areas.
Bloody Kansas Period
As Kansas prepared for elections, thousands of Border Ruffians from Missouri entered the territory in an effort to influence the election. This started the Bloody Kansas period with duplicate constitutional conventions, separate elections and constant violent attacks.
Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks
Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner delivered a speech attacking slavery supporters in the Senate. He singled out Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina in his speech. Two days later, South Carolina Representative Preston Brooks, attacks Sumner on the Senate floor and beats him with a cane. The House did not expel or censure Brooks for the attack, Sumner took three years to recover.
Tariff of 1857
Congress passed the Tariff of 1857 lowering rates to the lowest level since 1812 to 20%, this is very unpopular in the North and praised within the South.
Dred Scott Case
The Supreme Court rules in Scott v. Sandford that blacks are not U.S. citizens, and slaveholders have the right to take existing slaves into free areas of the county.
Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote and won 59% of the Electoral votes. He wasn't even on the ballot in the deep south.
South Carolina Ordinance of Secession
South Carolina convention passed ordinance of secession, seceding from the Union. The Declaration of Secession for South Carolina states, "We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States".
On January 9th an unarmed merchant ship, Star of the West, arrives in Charleston Harbor with troops and supplies to reinforce Ft. Sumter. The ship is fired upon and retreats. Also on this day Mississippi secedes from the Union.
The Crittenden Compromise
The Senate refused to consider the Crittenden Compromise, one of several failed attempts to ease tension between the North and South. The compromise contained six proposals for constitutional amendments, and four proposals for Congressional resolution including the re-application of the north/south boundary from the Missouri Compromise.
In Washington, President Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an "insurrection," and calls for 75,000 troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union.