Period 5

Period 5

  • Sarah Grimke's Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women published

    Sarah Grimke's Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women published
    In her Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and the Condition of Woman of 1838, (initally published as a series of letters in a newspaper) Sarah Grimké responded to Catharine Beecher’s defense of the subordinate role of women.
  • Henry Highland Garnet's "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America"

    Henry Highland Garnet's "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America"
    Henry called for a slave rebellion
  • Nat Turner Slave Revolt

     Nat Turner Slave Revolt
    was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831, led by Nat Turner. Rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 people, at least 51 being white.
  • William Lloyd Garrison Published The Liberator

    William Lloyd Garrison Published The Liberator
    Although The Liberator was Garrison's most prominent abolitionist activity, he had been involved in the fight to end slavery for years prior to its publication. In 1831, Garrison published the first edition of The Liberator.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society Begins

    American Anti-Slavery Society Begins
    The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS; 1833–1870) was an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, was a key leader of this society who often spoke at its meetings. William Wells Brown was also a freed slave who often spoke at meetings.
  • Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls

    Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls
    It was a meeting that launched the women's suffrage movement.
  • Harriet Tubman Escapes From Slavery

    Harriet Tubman Escapes From Slavery
    She escaped and later became the conductor for the Underground Railroad.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Senator Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South. As part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.
  • Sojourner Truth Delivered her "Ain't I a Woman" Speech

    Sojourner Truth Delivered her "Ain't I a Woman" Speech
    The speech was briefly reported in two contemporary newspapers, and a transcript of the speech was published in the Anti-Slavery Bugle on June 21, 1851. It received wider publicity in 1863 during the American Civil War when Frances Dana Barker Gage published a different version, one which became known as Ain't I a Woman? because of its oft-repeated question. This later, better known and more widely available version has been the one referenced by most historians.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe Published Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Harriet Beecher Stowe Published Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Harriet Beecher Stowe’s anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, is published. The novel sold 300,000 copies within three months and was so widely read that when President Abraham Lincoln met Stowe in 1862, he reportedly said, “So this is the little lady who made this big war.”
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.
  • Republican Party Founded

    Republican Party Founded
    By February 1854, anti-slavery Whigs had begun meeting in the upper midwestern states to discuss the formation of a new party. One such meeting, in Wisconsin on March 20, 1854, is generally remembered as the founding meeting of the Republican Party.Feb 9, 2010
  • Creation of the Radical Republicans

    Creation of the Radical Republicans
    The leading Radicals in Congress were Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Charles Sumner in the Senate. Grant was elected as a Republican in 1868 and after the election he generally sided with the Radicals on Reconstruction policies and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1871 into law.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    the United States Supreme Court issues a decision in the Dred Scott case, affirming the right of slave owners to take their slaves into the Western territories, there by negating the doctrine of popular sovereignty and severely undermining the platform of the newly created Republican Party.
  • Lecompton Constitution

    Lecompton Constitution
    Lecompton Constitution, (1857), instrument framed in Lecompton, Kan., by Southern pro-slavery advocates of Kansas statehood. It contained clauses protecting slaveholding and a bill of rights excluding free blacks, and it added to the frictions leading up to the U.S. Civil War.
  • Panic of 1857

    Panic of 1857
    The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy. Because of the interconnectedness of the world economy by the 1850s, the financial crisis that began in late 1857 was the first worldwide economic crisis.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    The Lincoln-Douglas debates were significant because of the issues discussed between the candidates during the debates. By the 1850s, slavery had become a major political issue. Douglas was an incumbent senator who had established himself as a supporter of popular sovereignty on the subject of slavery.
  • John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry

    John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
    was an effort by abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Brown's party of 22 was defeated by a company of U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Israel Greene Colonel Robert E. Lee was in overall command of the operation to retake the arsenal.
  • Democratic Party Splits into Northern and Southern Halves

    Democratic Party Splits into Northern and Southern Halves
    The Democratic Party became so divided that they ran two candidates in the election of 1860: Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas, while southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge. This split the Democratic ticket in half, giving the Republicans, who nominated Abraham Lincoln, a huge advantage.
  • South Carolina Secedes from the Union

    South Carolina Secedes from the Union
    The convention then adjourned to Charleston to draft an ordinance of secession. When the ordinance was adopted on December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first slave state in the south to declare that it had seceded from the United States.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas.
  • Confederate States of America Founded

    Confederate States of America Founded
    In February 1861, representatives from the six seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama, to formally establish a unified government, which they named the Confederate States of America. On February 9, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected the Confederacy's first president.
  • Abraham Lincoln Elected President

    Abraham Lincoln Elected President
    Abraham Lincoln is elected the 16th president of the United States over a deeply divided Democratic Party, becoming the first Republican to win the presidency. Lincoln received only 40 percent of the popular vote but handily defeated the three other candidates: Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Union candidate John Bell, and Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, a U.S. senator for Illinois.
  • Firing at Fort Sumter

    Firing at Fort Sumter
    The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the Confederate States Army, and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. After a great victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address is a speech that U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is one of the best-known speeches in American history.
  • General U.S. Grant Assumed Command of Union Troops

    General U.S. Grant Assumed Command of Union Troops
    On this day in 1864, President Abraham Lincoln signs a brief document officially promoting then-Major General Ulysses S. Grant to the rank of lieutenant general of the U.S. Army, tasking the future president with the job of leading all Union troops against the Confederate Army.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    From November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The purpose of Sherman's March to the Sea was to frighten Georgia's civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.
  • Abraham Lincoln Reelected

    Abraham Lincoln Reelected
    President Lincoln's Reelection. Despite progress in the war, Lincoln and most political pundits were convinced that he would lose his bid for reelection in 1864. The country was war weary and the Democratic Party's nominee, George McClellan, was likely to negotiate a peace treaty with the Confederacy if elected.
  • Lincoln Assassination

    Lincoln Assassination
    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, murderous attack on Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., on the evening of April 14, 1865. Shot in the head by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln died the next morning.
  • Congress Passed the 13th Amendment

    Congress Passed the 13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.
  • Lee Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House

    Lee Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House
    On April 9, 1865, near the town of Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Days earlier, Lee had abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond and the city of Petersburg; his goal was to rally the remnants of his beleaguered troops, meet Confederate reinforcements in North Carolina and resume fighting.
  • Andrew Johnson Became President

    Andrew Johnson Became President
    Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
  • Johnson Announced Plan for Presidential Reconstruction

    Johnson Announced Plan for Presidential Reconstruction
    In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South.
  • Arrival of Scalawags and Carpetbaggers in the South

    Arrival of Scalawags and Carpetbaggers in the South
    The term “carpetbaggers” refers to Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War, during Reconstruction. Many carpetbaggers were said to have moved South for their own financial and political gains. Scalawags were white Southerners who cooperated politically with black freedmen and Northern newcomers.
  • Ku Klux Klan formed

    Ku Klux Klan formed
    Six Confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee created the original Ku Klux Klan on December 24, 1865, during the Reconstruction of the South after the Civil War. The name was formed by combining the Greek kyklos with clan. The group was known for a short time as the "Kuklux Clan".
  • Freedman's Bureau Established

    Freedman's Bureau Established
    The Freedmen’s Bureau, formally known as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, was established in 1865 by Congress to help millions of former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the Civil War.
  • Civil Rights Act Passed Over Johnson's Veto

    Civil Rights Act Passed Over Johnson's Veto
    Congress overrides veto to enact civil rights bill, April 9, 1866. A Republican-dominated Congress enacted a landmark Civil Rights Act on this day in 1866, overriding a veto by President Andrew Johnson. The law's chief thrust was to offer protection to slaves freed in the aftermath of the Civil War.
  • First Congressional Reconstruction Act Passed

    First Congressional Reconstruction Act Passed
    Reconstruction Acts, U.S. legislation enacted in 1867–68 that outlined the conditions under which the Southern states would be readmitted to the Union following the American Civil War (1861–65). The bills were largely written by the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Congress.
  • 14th Amendment Ratified

    14th Amendment Ratified
    On July 28, 1868, the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified. The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War.
  • Andrew Jackson Impeached

    Andrew Jackson Impeached
    On this day in 1868, the U.S. Senate continues to hear impeachment charges against President Andrew Johnson. The trial, convened by the Senate on March 5, focused on issues surrounding Johnson's post-Civil WarReconstruction policy and, more specifically, his firing of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton.
  • 15th Amendment Ratified

    15th Amendment Ratified
    Passed by Congress February 26, 1869, and ratified February 3, 1870, the 15th amendment granted African American men the right to vote.
  • U.S. Grant Elected President

    U.S. Grant Elected President
    Ulysses S. Grant was born on April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio. He was entrusted with command of all U.S. armies in 1864, and relentlessly pursued the enemy during the Civil War. In 1869, at age 46, Grant became the youngest president in U.S. history to that point.
  • Period of "Redemption" after the Civil War

    Period of "Redemption" after the Civil War
    White Democratic Southerners saw themselves as redeeming the South by regaining power. They appealed to scalawags (white Southerners who supported the Republican Party after the Civil War and during the Reconstruction Era.
  • Slaughterhouse Cases(Supreme Court)

    Slaughterhouse Cases(Supreme Court)
    The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 36 (1873), was the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment which had recently been enacted. ... In effect, the amendment was interpreted to convey limited protection pertinent to a small minority of rights.
  • U.S. v. Cruikshank

    U.S. v. Cruikshank
    United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal, that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.