Period 5

  • Period 5 contextualization

    This time period can be viewed as the start of a major cultural shift in American life. The reason for this is because of the spread of ideas being implemented in actions. There were many relevant events under this period like the Civil War, and Reconstruction. The most important things during this period were the growth of immigration to the U.S, differentiating ideas towards slavery, manifest destiny, and Westward Expansion.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The belief of manifest destiny is that it was America's destiny to civilize and conquer those that are uncultured and uneducated. This idea only reinforces the feeling and the belief of white superiority and that no one was as sophisticated and advanced as them. Manifest destiny had a prominent female figure who is Columbia. She represents America and is the Goddess for liberty. This belief played a big role in the Western Expansion and imperialism in general.
  • Mexican War

    Mexican War
    This war was also known as the Mexican-American warm, fighting for territory. The U.S first declared war on the Mexican government, where the Americans ended victorious. This war was supported by the idea that the U.S needed to keep expanding westward.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Wilmot Proviso is a proposal made by David Wilmot. He was an American Democrat who was in the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania. This proposal was made during the Mexican American war for the annexation of the territories of the Mexican government. It was mainly made to prohibit slavery on new land. This wasn't made a law, making this proposal only effective for a short period of time. It did play a major role in reopening the debates over slavery which later led to the Civil War
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This was a treaty of peace towards Mexicans in the territory allowing them to either stay there and be part of the U.S or move to Mexico. The treaty also gave land rights to Mexicans. It was a treaty made to attempt to give at least something to Mexicans after their loss.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The compromise consisted of five bills passed by Congress. It was about free and slave states, and it also had to do with California as another U.S state, but as a free state. There the Fugitive act was amended and the slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished.
  • Fugitive Slave Law

    Fugitive Slave Law
    The law is about the return of slaves back to their state and owner after they tried to escape. This law was also passed in 1793 by Congress supporting slavery. This was part of the Compromise of 1850.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    This was a popular novel that supported anti-slavery which was later banned because of the theme against slavery. If it was banned, then it clearly demonstrates that it was influential and threaten those pro-slavery believers. The author is Harriet Beecher Stowe and in the novel she wrote about Uncle Tom and his experiences as a slave.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    The event taken place called "bleeding Kansas" was caused by pro- and anti-slavery having a battle to either prevent or keep slavery. This was after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. This was a big confrontation that took place in Kansas and was the reason for the establishment of the Republican Party. It also contributed to the Civil War because it was a major confrontation that only adding to the tension over slavery.
  • Dred Scott v Sanford

    Dred Scott v Sanford
    The case of Dred Scott versus Sanford was a battle over freedom where Dred and Harriet filed a lawsuit in the St. Louis Circuit Court against Irene Emerson. Dred Scott had traveled to a free state where it is considered that when that happens then that makes the person free. Irene refused to give Scott his freedom following his lawsuit against her. The court decided that an American with African descent slave either free or not could not sue in federal court and that they weren't citizens.
  • Republican Party & Election of 1860

    Republican Party & Election of 1860
    The election of 1860 had a big significance because that was the victory where the president Abraham Lincoln was chosen. He was the first republican president. This domination of the Republican party really became visible in the Civil war where the Union won against the Confederates. They also led the nation towards the abolition of slavery.
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    This plan was created by General Winfield Scott during the Civil War, granting victory for the Union against the Confederate on Fort Sumter on April 12th, 1861. The effectiveness of this plan rose moral to the Union and kept them going through the war.
  • Homestead Act 1862

    Homestead Act 1862
    This act was during the Civil War to grant an adult and citizen land for not going against the U.S government. This added to the thoughts of the settlement of Westward expansion. This politically and socially affects the U.S by having people claim land and hasting expansion.
  • Pacific Railroad Acts 1862

    Pacific Railroad Acts 1862
    These acts were passed by congress to promote the building of the transcontinental railroad. They did this by authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies. Most of the railroad took almost all of it was east of the Mississippi River. This made easier the transportation to the West and connected the regions in the network.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Abraham Lincoln issued this in the third year of the bloody war. This was an important executive order that freed multiple slaves that were in the Confederate states. It also contributed to the joining of former slaves fighting for the Union side.
  • Gettysburg

    Gettysburg
    Gettysburg is a town in Pennsylvania; this was one battlefield during the Civil War. The historical meaning behind this town is that the battle that took place there, was one of the turning points for the Civil war. In this battle, most casualties were done there of the entire war. This town is a symbolism for what was endured. There is also the Gettysburg address where Lincoln has a speech in the cemetery where Lincoln wanted to redefine nationhood.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    After the Civil War, the Union went through Reconstruction where rights were given to former slaves. The laws passed under Reconstruction were to maintain equal rights, but southern states adopted laws to limit those rights. This was a backward step to what the Union was trying to achieve, and it just fed into racism and segregation.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    This is one of the amendments that created a major shift in the social, political, and economic aspects of the American lifestyle. The amendment abolished involuntary servitude and the most important slavery. Even though the amendment did not necessarily abolish slavery or racism at the start, the change was more symbolic in the way that it was on its way to freedom.
  • Reconstruction Acts

    Reconstruction Acts
    These were statues passed by congress that were required in order to readmit the Southern States in the Union. These acts were after the Civil War in order to maintain the goals fought by the Union. They were more for former slaves and give them rights, but southern states created laws to bend the rules. They adopted black codes and jim crow laws to restrict black people from their rights.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    This was one of the amendments passed during Reconstruction to provide rights to former slaves. In the amendment, it gives rights to every citizen in the U.S that were born or naturalized. This was to provide equal rights and prevent slavery from repeating.
  • Amnesty Act 1872

    Amnesty Act 1872
    The federal law of 1872, Amnesty Act, reversed penalties against confederates supporters during the Civil War and after. The Act amended the original restrictive act of 1866 and this Act was nullified due to the increase in African-American vote. This act though was not for Confederates leaders, they were still punished.
  • Continuation

    The starting year of this period had its significance as in the Gold Rush causing people to move west and feeding into the idea of manifest destiny. The ending year being 1877 having its meaning as the times after the Civil War following the Reconstruction. These were times that would determine the future years.