The Second Half of the Antebellum Era: 1836-1860

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    African Slavery in Americas

    Through this entire timespan was when slaves were brought over to the Americas to work for their owners. Also where inter-continental trading of slaves begun and the reproduction of slaves as well.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    Solved how the nation dealt with their territories. Also how to become a territory and then a state. How to surrender their lands and join the union.
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    Second Great Awakening

    Started in the Southern frontier, eventually making its way into Northern cities. Said to be "sweeping up even more people than the First Great Awakening." Many ideas such as religious change and educational ones were presented. Many people were still leaving the church and establishing their own.
  • University of Virginia was Founded

    University of Virginia was Founded
    Was one of the first state supported universities. Held a higher learning. As well as architecture inspired by Thomas Jefferson.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    This was the 36 30 line which divided the north and the south. Anything above the line was a free state. While anything below the line was a slave state. This was an invisible line in Missouri. This compromise allowed Maine to enter the union as a free state while Missouri became a slave state.
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    Women's Secondary Schools

    Around this time many women were still not allowed to study. In the woke of this problem many Women Secondary Schools opened. Which was a single sex school, this was during the Second Great Awakening.
  • American Temperance Society Formed

    American Temperance Society Formed
    Formed in Boston. And encouraged to stop drinking. Similar groups were called the Temperance pledge, Cold Water Army and Temperance crusaders. Which all taught the "evils" of alcoholic drinks.
  • Webster Dictionary

    Webster Dictionary
    Took Noah Webster twenty years in order for him to develop his dictionary. When published it helped to standardize the English Language. These dictionaries are still used today.
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    Camp Meetings

    With the Second Great Awakening mass meetings were held. They were not educational rather they were religious. Preachers would attend a several day camp with as many as 25,000 would attend. They would talk about religion and did this in order to ensure religion would continue to stay a large part of everyday life.
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    Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad's started to be used in the 1830s but didn't reach its peak until the late 19th century. It was a secret organization that took runaway slaves North to Canada. Harriet Tubman helped free african americans. She took 19 trips and rescued about 300 slaves.
  • Turner's Rebellion

    Turner's Rebellion
    This rebellion was led by Nat turner. He was a visionary black preacher in the south. During the rebellion he and his followers killed 60 Virginians. Mostly were women and children that were murdered by his cult. The south came back with force and executed Nat and his followers.
  • Lyceum

    Although education was now more available, many Americans were still illiterate (about a million). Lyceum's were classes given to the masses. Which were held by traveling lecturers. About three thousand associations related to lyceums were founded by 1835.
  • Amistad

    There was a boat of Africans being brought over to the Americas and they took over the ship. They tried to sail back towards Africa but winded up being steered into Long Island. These Africans were locked up and tried multiple times. Until John Quincy Adams secured their return home and their freedom with his argument in the U.S. Supreme Court in 1841. The Africans were returned to the British colony of Sierra Leone in West Africa.
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    Tenth President of the United states

    After the death of William Henry Harrison, Tyler took over office. He was part of the Whigs although he disliked the whigs. But he disliked Democrats as well. His supporters were mainly from the South. Enemies accused him of "being a Democrat in Whig's clothing".
  • Problems with England

    By 1842, there was an anti-British at this time. The pro-british Federalists had died out and the British travelers in America scoffed at the "uncivilized" Americans. The British and the US attacked each other with magazines and journals. The third war with England started. Luckily, it was a war with words and not of blood.
  • Tariff of 1842

    Tariff of 1842
    Was a protectionist tariff. Which helped to restrain international trade. Since many businesses (America) were going through an economic crises. This was in response to the Panic of 1833. Passed by John Tyler.
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    Polk and Mexican American War

    President Polk wanted to buy California, but Mexico wouldn't sell it to the US. Polk was angry and sent troops to the Rio Grande, but Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the Americans. The war had officially started. Nicholas P. Trust was sent to Mexico to try and buy California again. He negotiated an armistice for $10,000 and Mexico accepted. Nicholas signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on Feb. 2, 1848 and sent it to Washington to end the war.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Congressman David Wilmot, who was a Democratic Representative, introduced the WIlmot Proviso, which was an amendment that said that slavery should never exist in any of the Mexican Cession territories that would be wrested from Mexico.
  • Gold Rush to California

    Gold was discovered in California and tens of thousands of people rushed into California. This resulted in a lot of crimes. Later on, a Constitution was drafted which excluded slavery. California bypassed territorial stage and avoided becoming a slave state.
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    Women's Rights Movement

    Solidified at the Women's Rights convention at Seneca Falls. A movement which aimed towards gaining women as well as girls rights. Since at this time women were not allowed to do many things men did. Such things are voting, owning land were things women were not allowed to have. This movement also impacted worldwide not just the United States.
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    Women's Right convention at Seneca Falls

    This helped develop the Women's Rights Movement. The "Declaration of Sentiments" was said in front of approximately 100 women at Seneca Falls. It help to say that women should be given the same rights "All men and women are created equal."
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    Zachary Taylor's Presidency

    Zachary Taylor beat Lewis Cass for presidency and took office in March of 1849. Before his presidency, Taylor was a career officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of major general. Taylor's status as a national hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican–American War won him election to the White House. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died sixteen months into his term before making any progress on the status of slavery.
  • Compromise of 1850

    President Millard signed a series of agreements because he was impressed by arguments of conciliation. The Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington was abolished. California entered the Union as a free state and a territorial government was created in Utah. California became a free state.
  • Maine Law of 1851

    Maine Law of 1851
    Also known as the "Maine Liquor Law". Prohibited the sale and distribution of intoxicating liquor. An affect of the Temperance Movement.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe to awaken the north to the evil of slavery. Stowe expressed her disagreement with the Fugitive Slave Law and was inspired by the religious crusades of the 2nd Great Awakening. Uncle Tom's Cabin left an impression on the north and they wanted nothing do to with the Fugitive Slave Law.
  • Kansas Nebraska Act

    Kansas Nebraska Act
    This act allowed the people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they wanted to allow slavery or not within their borders through popular sovereignty. This Act also served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820.The north was against this act while the south supported it.
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    Bleeding Kansas

    Violent events between the South ( slave states ) and the North (free states) over whether the Kansas territory should be an antislavery or a proslavery state. The conflicts in Kansas resulted in property damage, agriculture problems, and took many lives
  • Old Buck Vs. The Pathfinder (Election of 1856)

    Old Buck Vs. The Pathfinder (Election of 1856)
    Democrats elected James Buchanan (Old Buck) as their candidate. He was enemy-less and had served as minister during the Kansas Nebraska conflict.Republicans elected John C. Fremont (Pathfinder) as their candidate.Republicans were against slavery expanding while Democrats relied on popular sovereignty to decide slavery. During this campaign, antiforeignism and mudslinging were used. Buchanan won the election in the end.
  • Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (part of Bleeding Kansas)

    Pottawatomie Creek Massacre (part of Bleeding Kansas)
    John Brown, an abolitionist, led his followers to Pottawatomie Creek, There he surprised 5 proslavery men and hacked them to pieces. In response, proslavery forces began to retaliate.
  • The Caning of Charles Sumner

    The Caning of Charles Sumner
    Charles Sumner insulted pro-slavery men, South Carolina, and their senator Andrew Butler. Congressman Preston S. Brooks beat Sumner with a cane until it broke (for revenge). Nearby senators refused to help Sumner and the House of Representatives couldn't get enough votes to expel Brooks. South admired Brooks but North was against his actions.
  • Presbyterian Split

    Presbyterian Split
    The presbyterians in the North and South Split. A major reason concerned over the institution of Slavery.
  • The Impending Crisis of the South

    The Impending Crisis of the South
    A novel written by Hinton R. Helper that said non slave-holding whites suffered the most from slavery. South feared that majority of non slave-holding whites would turn against the rest of the south, which lead to the book being banned in the south. However, the north sold thousands of copies and they were used as campaign literature by republicans.
  • Dred Scott V. Stanford

    Dred Scott V. Stanford
    Dred Scott, a slave, tried to sue his master for freedom because they had lived in a free state for a while before moving to a slave state. Since he was a slave he couldn't sue in federal court and the supreme court used amendment 5, saying that he was property because he was a slave and couldn't be taken from his master. This ruling made southerners happy.
  • Panic of 1857

    Panic of 1857
    A financial panic that was caused by currency being raised because of the California Gold Rush, hunger, railroads, and over 5,000 businesses failing. Northerners blamed this panic on the south's low tariff policies.
  • Tariff of 1857

    Tariff of 1857
    Duties were reduced to about 20% on dutiable goods because of the economic struggles in the Panic of 1857. The north wanted higher tariffs and increased protection since they blamed the panic on the south's low tariffs.
  • Lecompton Constitution

    Lecompton Constitution
    This was written by proslavery men and was the 2nd constitution draft for Kansas. It allowed slavery, prevented any african americans from staying in Kansas, and only allowed white, male U.S. citizens to vote. The Lecompton constitution was later rejected by the people in the Kansas territory.
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    Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    They were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the United States Senate from Illinois, and incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. Douglas won the election, however Lincoln gained national importance. (Also, the Freeport Question was raised during one of these debates, which asked whether the court or people should decide the future of slavery in territories.)
  • Freeport Doctrine

    Freeport Doctrine
    Douglas formulated the “ Freeport Doctrine,” in which he argued that a territory had the right to exclude slavery despite contrary U.S. Supreme Court decisions. (Since slavery could not exist without laws to protect it, territorial legislation (not supreme court) would have final say on it.)
  • John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry
    John Brown wanted to invade the south with his followers to free slaves, provide them with arms, and help them rise up.However, when Brown and his followers reached Harpers Ferry in Virginia, they ended up failing because the slaves didn't know about the plan. Brown and his men were captured and Brown was later hung. The South was furious with his actions. The North was angry with the south for hanging Brown since they viewed Brown's actions as heroic.
  • Election of Lincoln

    Election of Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was elected president on November 6, 1860. He was elected the 16th president of the United States, beating Douglas, Breckinridge, and Bell. He was the first president from the Republican Party.
  • Secession

    After Abraham Lincoln was elected to the presidency, seven southern states seceded from the Union. In March 1861, after he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, four more followed. This happened because the southern states were convinced that Lincoln would end slavery.
  • Crittenden Amendments

    Crittenden Amendments
    These failed constitutional amendments would have given federal protection for slavery in all territories south of the 36 degree 30 N. line where slavery was supported by popular sovereignty.
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    Even with the establishment of about a hundred public secondary schools, education was still just a luxury. Many Americans were illiterate. And many others too poor to buy school books/ supplies. mostly boys/men attended school. School taught mostly patriotism in order to make its students like the United states.
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    Fort Sumter

    It is the site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. South Carolina had seceded from the Union and demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, which was one of the only two forts in the South still under Union control. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
  • James Buchanan

    James Buchanan
    James Buchanan was the 15th President of the United States. He was serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.