The Second Half of the Antebellum Era: 1836-1860

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    The Disruption of the Democrats

    After failing to nominate a candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, the Democrats split into Northern and Southern factions, and at Baltimore, the Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for
    president while the Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckinridge. Meanwhile, the “Know-Nothings” chose John Bell of Tennessee and called themselves the Constitutional Union party.
  • 201

    The Disruption of the Democrats

    After failing to nominate a candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, the Democrats split into Northern and Southern factions, and at Baltimore, the Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for
    president while the Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckinridge. Meanwhile, the “Know-Nothings” chose John Bell of Tennessee and called themselves the Constitutional Union party.
  • 201

    The Disruption of the Democrats

    After failing to nominate a candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, the Democrats split into Northern and Southern factions, and at Baltimore, the Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for
    president while the Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckinridge. Meanwhile, the “Know-Nothings” chose John Bell of Tennessee and called themselves the Constitutional Union party.
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    Sothern Economy

    The Sothern economy consisted of many things such as the invention of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin. Slavery was a dying business, since the South was burdened with depressed prices, unmarketable goods, and over-cropped lands. After the gin was invented, growing cotton became wildly profitable and easier, and more slaves were needed.
  • National Literature

    National Literature
    Literature was reborn after the War of Independence and especially after War of 1812. The Knickerbocker group in NY wrote the first truly American literature.
    Edgar Allan Poe - wrote “The Raven”
    James Russell Lowell - political satirist who wrote Biglow Papers
    Oliver Wendell Holmes - The Last Leaf
    Louisa May Alcott - with transcendentalism wrote Little Women
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The main thing to know regarding the Articles is that they set up a very weak government. This was not by accident, but by plan. The reason a weak government was desired was simply to avoid a strong national government that would take away unalienable rights or abuse their power. It was was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
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    Second Great Awakening

    A religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Finally, the deadlock was broken by a bundle of compromises known as the Missouri Compromise. Missouri would be admitted as a slave state while Maine would be admitted as a free state, thus maintaining the balance.
  • Age Of Reform

    Age Of Reform
    Reformers opposed tobacco, alcohol, profanity, and many other vices, and came out for women’s rights.
  • The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention

    The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention
    Held in NY, it was a major landmark in women’s rights
    Declaration of Sentiments was written in the spirit of the
    Declaration of Independence saying that “all Men and Women are
    created equal” demanded ballot for women launched modern women’s rights movement.
  • Fugitive Slave Act 1850

    Fugitive Slave Act 1850
    The new fugitive slave act of 1850 was passed in favor of the south and to please the south. It was a way to shut them up for a while. This new act made it illegal to aid a runaway slave. This act encouraged people to turn in runaway slaves and kidnap free blacks. If one was found guilty of being aiding a runaway they would be fined and sentenced to prison.
    By creating more friction between the north and the south this act made it even clearer that the civil war was inevitable.
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    Religion

    Church attendance was regular in 1850. Many relied on Deism, Deism rejected original sin of man, and denied Christ’s divinity but believed in a supreme being that created universe with an order, similar to a clockmaker.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin is an anti-slavery fictional novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The books touches on the life of a slave and the hardship endured during slavery. This popular book awakened the passions of the North toward the evils of slavery.The book sold millions of copies, however the south claimed that Stowe’s portrayal of slavery was wrong and unfair. The south banned the book, but widely read in the North. This book drove the North/South wedge deeper, aiding in causing civil war.
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    Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas is the term used to described the period of violence during the settling of the Kansas territory. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraksa Act disregarded the Missouri Compromise’s use of latitude to determine between slave and free territory and instead, using the principle of popular sovereignty, stating that the people would determine the status of Kansas. Proslavery and free-state settlers flooded into Kansas to try to influence the decision. Violence erupted as sides fought for control.
  • Kansas -Nebraska Act

    Kansas -Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed residents in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to have popular sovereignty, when deciding whether or not their a slave state. The Act repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.
  • Canning of Charles Sumner

    Canning of Charles Sumner
    Senator of Massachusetts Charles Sumner was a leading vocal abolitionist, who's insulting speech, "The crime Agaisnt Kansas", condemned all pro slavery supporters. Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina was insulted by Sumner remarks about South Carolina, deemed Sumner not a gentleman so instead of a proper duel he beat Sumner with a cane until it broke. Brooks actions were cheered on by the South, however since Sumner speech had gained popularity many people were upset also.
  • John Brown

    John Brown
    John Brown was a radical abolitionist that led a group of followers to Pottawatomie Creek in May of 1856 and killed five pro-slavery supporters. In 1859, Harper's Ferry, he hoped to arm slaves and start a slave rebellion; he failed and was handed, but his actions frightened the South. Brown became a idol among those who wanted to end slavery in America.
  • Election of 1856

    Election of 1856
  • Dred Scott Bombshell

    Dred Scott Bombshell
    Dred Scott was a slave whose master took him north into free states, Illinois and Wisconsin territories, he lived for many years. After his master’s death, he sued for his freedom from his new master, claiming that he had been in free territory and was therefore free. The Missouri Supreme Court agreed, freeing him, but his new master appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overruled the decision.
  • Dret Scott Court Case

    Dret Scott Court Case
    In the Supreme Court, Chief Justice Roger Taney said that slaves couldn't citizens of the U.S. in his justification. The Court said a congress couldn't outlaw slavery, as this goes against the 5th Amendment saying a person’s property cannot be taken without due process of law. The Court then concluded the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional because it banned slavery north of the 36° 30’ line and this altogether went against the 5th Amendment.
  • Panic of 1857

    Panic of 1857
    The causes included California gold causing inflation, over-growth of grain, over-speculation. The North was impacted most, but the South did fairly well as they had cotton.
    In 1860, Congress passed a Homestead Act that would provide 160 acres of land at a cheap price for those who were less-fortunate, but it was vetoed by Buchanan. This plan was opposed by the North who knew it would provide an easy way for more free-soilers to fill the territories.
  • Panic of 1857( contuined)

    Panic of 1857( contuined)
    The panic also brought calls for a higher tariff rate, which had been lowered to about 20% only months before.
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    The Great Debate: Lincoln Versus Douglas

    Lincoln challenged Douglas, the nation’s most
    devastating debater, to a series of seven debates, which the Senator accepted, and despite expectations of failure, Lincoln held his own. The most famous debate came at Freeport, Illinois, where Lincoln asked, “Mr. Douglas, if the people of a territory voted slavery down, despite the Supreme Court saying that they could not do so, which side would you support?" Douglas replied with his Freeport Doctrine, sealing his fate in the elections.
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    John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry

    John Brown now had a plan to invade the South, and call upon the slaves to rise up and revolt, and take over the South and free it of slaves. However, the
    slaves didn’t revolt, and he was captured by the U.S. Marines under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee and convicted of treason, sentenced to death, and hanged. Abolitionists were infuriated by his execution. The South was happy and saw justice. They also felt his actions were
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    The Disruption of the Democrats

    After failing to nominate a candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, the Democrats split into Northern and Southern factions, and at Baltimore, the Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas for
    president while the Southern Democrats chose John C. Breckinridge. Meanwhile, the “Know-Nothings” chose John Bell of Tennessee and called themselves the Constitutional Union party.
  • The Secessionist Exodus

    The Secessionist Exodus
    In December 1860, South Carolina's legislature met in Charleston and voted unanimously to secede. Six other states joined South Carolina: Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. They secede because Abraham Lincoln became president
  • Crittenden Compromise

    James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky proposed the Crittenden Compromise, which would ban slavery north of the 36°30’ line extended to the Pacific
    and would leave the issue in territories south of the line up to the people; also, existing slavery south of the line would be protected. This plan however eventually failed.
  • South Carolina Seceeds from the United States

    As a result of Lincoln's victory in the 1860 Election, South Carolina seceded. Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed in the next six weeks, before Lincoln was inaugurated.
  • The Creating of the Confederation States of America

    The seven secession states met in Montgomery, Alabama in February of 1861 and created the Confederate States of America, and they chose
    Jefferson Davis as president. President Buchanan did nothing to force the confederacy back into
    the Union, partly because the Union troops were needed in the West and because the North was still apathetic toward secession; he simply left the issue for Lincoln to handle when he got sworn in.
  • Lincoln Ingural Address

    In his speech he address the issue of secession. In his speech he stated that secession itself was wholly impractical, because “physically speaking, we cannot separate.” North and south were bound inseparably together. A split U.S. brought up questions about the sharing of the national debt and the allocation of federal territories. A split U.S. pleased Europeans because the the Monroe Doctrine could be undermined.
  • Fort Sumter Battle

    Fort Sumter Battle
    On December 20, 1860 the Major Robert Anderson had a force of 85 soldiers were stationed at Fort Moultrie near Charleston Harbor. Fearing for his safety and his men, he moved his soldiers to Fort Sumter on December 26, 1860. On April 11, 1861 Confederate General P.G.T sent troops to demand the forts surrender. Anderson refused. The following morning the confederate soldiers open fired on Fort Sumter and continued until the following two days. April 13 1861 Major Anderson surrendered the fort.
  • Fort Sumter Act of Agression

    Most of the forts in the South had relinquished their power to the Confederacy, but Fort Sumter was among the two that didn’t. Lincoln chose to send supplies to the fort, and he told the South Carolinian governor that the ship to the fort only held provisions, not reinforcements. To the South, provisions were reinforcements, as act of aggression on cannons were fired onto the fort.
  • Farewell to the Union

    Farewell to the Union
    The southern states seceded, fearing that the Republican Party would threaten their rights to own slaves.
    Many southerners felt that their secession would be unopposed by the North. They assumed that the northern manufacturers and bankers, dependent upon southern cotton and markets. Which made the union-vs-confederacy
  • Women In Revolt

    Women In Revolt
    Women stayed home, without voting rights. Still, in the 19th century, American women were generally better off than in Europe. Many women avoid marriage altogether becoming “spinsters.” Women were perceived as weak physically and emotionally, but fine for teaching.
  • The Election of 1860

    Lincoln won with only 40% of the popular vote.
    It was a very sectional race: the North went to Lincoln, the South to Breckinridge, the “middle-ground” to the
    middle-of-the-road candidate in Bell, and popular-sovereignty-land went to Douglas.The Republicans did not control the House or the Senate, and the
    South still had a five-to-four majority in the Supreme Court, but the South still decided to secede.
  • Meeting in Montgomery, Alabama

    The seven secession states met in Montgomery, Alabama in February of 1861 and created the Confederate States of America, and they chose
    Jefferson Davis as president.