Sara Casal_G&H_4ºF

  • Period: 1453 to

    Modern History

    Modern history is the history of the world that begins after the Middle Ages.
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    Enclosure Acts

    The British Parliament passed a series of laws called Acts of Closure to authorize this process, which led to a concentration of land ownership, benefiting large landowners, who were able to produce more and increase their profits.
  • John Kay’s flying shuttle

    John Kay’s flying shuttle
    John Kay was an English inventor whose most important creation was the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution.
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    First Industrial revolution

    It is a process of economic, social and technological transformation, which began in Great Britain and spread a few decades later throughout Europe and America.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    Watt's steam engine, also known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was the first steam engine, becoming one of the driving forces of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
    In 1776, Adam Smith published The Wealth of Nations, the most influential book on market economics. In 1759, Smith published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. His book looked at human nature and ethics.,204,203,200_.jpg
  • Invention of the power loom

    Invention of the power loom
    A power loom is a mechanized loom system driven by a drive shaft. The mechanical loom was the result of the evolution of the manual loom.
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    Contemporary History

    It is the most recent period in the history of Humanity, this historical stage has been located in the year of the French Revolution (1789), in which Modern History ends.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    Constitutional monarchy is the system of government that shares power with a constitutionally organized government. It was organized into departments, and each department was governed by a prefect.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General met in Versailles in May 1789.The meeting was chaired by the king and made up of representatives of the nobility and the clergy.
    The representatives of the Thirth Estate met in a pavilion and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly.
    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and they stormed the Bastille.
    Louis XVI in 1789, accepted the National Assembly.
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    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a social and political conflict, It was against the monarchy from 1789 to 1799. Some example of what happened in the French Revolution is the storming of the Bastille by French citizens.
  • Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)

    Tennis Court Oath (Proclamation of the National Assembly)
    The members of the French Third Estate not to separate and to reassemble wherever require, until the Constitution of the kingdom is established.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol of the monarchy's abuse of power.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The French National Constituent Assembly declared the Rights of Man and of the Citizen that defined individual and collective rights at the time of the French Revolution.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    A crowd of women demanding bread for their families gathered other disgruntled Parisians, including some men, and marched on Versailles. The King agreed to meet with some of the women and promised to distribute all the bread at Versailles to the crowd.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    Is a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it.
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    Social Republic

    The radical bourgeoisie, encouraged by the working classes, proclaimed the Republic and began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. A new constitution that recognised popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality was enacted.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    Was a defining event , when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic.
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    Girondin Convention

    The Girondins, the more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution was carried out in the Plaza de la Revolución, formerly known as Plaza de Luis XV.
    One day after being convicted of conspiracy with foreign powers and sentenced to death by the French National Convention, King Louis XVI is executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris. There, Louis was forced to accept the constitution of 1791.
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    Reign of Terror

    The Terror was a period of change centered on the rise of the French Revolution, and which has generated numerous debates.
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    Conservative Republic

    The moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the Revolution and it entered its third and final phase. Jacobin laws were cancelled and exiles from the Reign of Terror were encouraged to return. Granted executive power to a collegial government, the Directory, and restored census suffrage.
    The Directory , which sought to re-establish the monarchy and recover its privileges, and the common people, who supported the return of the Jacobins.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Coup d'état that overthrew the system of government under the Directory in France and substituted the Consulate, making way for the despotism of Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    The Consulate

    The Consulate was the institution of government in France after the fall of the Directory, after the coup that Napoleon Bonaparte gave on 18 Brumaire, a new constitution was promulgated.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    The Constitution of 1800 established a legislature , which was composed of a Conservative Senate of 80 men over the age of 40, a Tribunate of 100 men over the age of 25, and a Legislative Body of 300 men over 30 years old.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    It was a sovereign state that included a large part of Europe in its territory.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor, and made Josephine Empress. His coronation ceremony took place on December 2, 1804, in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris.
  • Treaty of Fontainebleau

    Treaty of Fontainebleau
    The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed on October 27, 1807 in the French city of Fontainebleau between the representatives of Manuel Godoy, valid of the King of Spain Carlos IV of Bourbon, and Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French.
    Whereby France and Spain agreed to invade Portugal and divide the country into three kingdoms.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    The Spanish War of Independence was a conflict between 1808 and 1814 within the context of the Napoleonic Wars, which faced the allied powers of Spain.
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    War of Independence

    The War of Spanish Independence was a conflict developed between 1808 and 1814 within the context of the Napoleonic Wars, which faced the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, Portugal...
  • Abdications of Bayonne

    Abdications of Bayonne
    The Bayonne abdications took place at the Marracq castle in the French city of Bayonne. and there the successive resignations of the kings Carlos IV and his son Fernando VII to the throne of Spain were made in favor of Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    Luddite movement

    It was a movement spearheaded by English artisans in the 19th century, who protested against new machines that destroyed jobs.
  • 1812 Spanish Constitution

    1812 Spanish Constitution
    The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, the Spanish Constitution of 1812 or the Constitution of Cádiz, popularly known as La Pepa, was promulgated by the Spanish General Courts meeting extraordinarily in Cádiz on March 19, 1812.
  • Treaty of Valençay

    Treaty of Valençay
    The Treaty of Valençay is an agreement signed in December 1813 in the castle of Valençay, by which the Emperor Napoleon I offered peace and recognized Ferdinand VII as King of Spain.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The powers that defeated Napoleon met at the Congress of Vienna.
    After reinstating monarchs on their thrones, the four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage. France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire was divided up among the victors.
    In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Manifiesto de los Persas

    Manifiesto de los Persas
    Manifesto de los Persas is a document signed on April 12, 1814, in Madrid, by 69 absolutist deputies, led by Bernardo Mozo de Rosales.
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    Reign of Ferdinand VII

    He was king of Spain between March and May 1808 and, after the expulsion of José I Bonaparte and his return to the country, again from May 1814 until his death, except for the brief interval in 1823 in which he was dismissed by the Regency Council.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    Agreement signed at the Congress of Vienna by the crowned heads of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Its purpose was to re-establish the principle of hereditary rule and to suppress democratic and nationalist movements, which sprung up in the wake of the French Revolution.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo was a combat for Waterloo, a town in present-day Belgium located about twenty kilometers south of Brussels, between the French army, against British, Dutch and German troops.
  • Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego

    Pronunciamiento of Colonel Rafael del Diego
    It is a period in the contemporary history of Spain that elapses between 1820 and 1823 (on March 10, 1820, in Madrid, Fernando VII is forced to swear the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and suppress the Spanish Inquisition).
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greek War of Independence was the Greek revolutionary conflict against various European powers such as the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of France and the United Kingdom.
  • Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

    Holy Alliance intervention: Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
    The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII, to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    Abolishment of the Combination Acts
    English combination laws prohibited workers from organizing in order to earn higher wages or control workplace conditions.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    Stephenson's Rocket was one of the first steam locomotives.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830.
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    The Age of the revolutions (1830-1848)

    The Age of Revolution is a period from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in most of Europe and the Americas.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In the Belgian Revolution the inhabitants of the southern provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands rose up against the superiority of the northern provinces.
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    Reign of Isabella II

    The reign of Isabel II is between the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833 and the triumph of the Revolution of 1868, which forced the queen to go into exile. His reign is divided into two stages: the minority (1833-1843) during which they assumed the regency, first, his mother María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias and, later, General Baldomero Espartero; and the effective reign that begins with the declaration by the Cortes in 1843.
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    First Carlist War

    The first Carlist War was a civil war that developed in Spain between 1833 and 1840 between the Carlist, supporters of the Infante Carlos María Isidro de Borbón and an absolutist regime.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
    The Great National Union of Consolidated Trades of 1834 was an attempt to form a national trade union confederation in the United Kingdom.
  • Zollverein

    The Customs Union of the States of Germany was a customs organization made in 1834.
  • 1837 Constitution

    1837 Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1837 was promulgated in Spain during the regency of María Cristina de Borbón.
  • 1845 Constitution

    1845 Constitution
    The Spanish Constitution of 1845 was the supreme norm during the reign of Isabel II, which replaced the Constitution of 1837 during her minority.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Revolutions of 1848, series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire.
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    French Second Republic (1848 – 1852)

    The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France. It lasted from the 1848 Revolution to the 1851 coup by which the president made himself Emperor Napoleon III and initiated the Second Empire.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    Invention of the Bessemer converter
    The Bessemer process was the first chemical manufacturing process that served to make steel, cast into ingots.
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    Italian Unification process

    The northern Italian states held elections in 1859 and 1860 and voted to join the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a major step towards unification.
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    German Unification process

    President of Prussia, provoked three short wars, against Denmark, Austria, and France. In 1871 he unified Germany into a nation-state, forming the German Empire.
  • First International

    First International
    The International Association was an organization founded from London in 1864 that brought together English trade unionists, French and Italian republican anarchists and socialists.
  • Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital

    Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital
    Das Kapital was published on 14 September 1867 in Hamburg. "Marx himself modestly described Das Kapital as a continuation of his Zur Kritik de politischen Oekonomie (1859).
  • Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy

    Start of the monarchy of Amadeo of Savoy
    He only King of Spain from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as The Duke of Aosta.
  • Proclamation of the First Republic

    Proclamation of the First Republic
    The Spanish Republic , known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    He was from Spain (1874-1885) and son of Isabel II, accompanied his mother into exile when she was dethroned by the Revolution of 1868. In 1870, Isabel II abdicated in favor of her son; and in 1873 he left the defense of the Bourbon cause in Spain in the hands of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo.
  • Second International

    Second International
    The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 by the Socialist and Labor parties that wished to coordinate their activity.